Diseases / List of Parasitic Diseases  / Disease description:

Lungworm Infection of Hedgehogs

Click here for full-screen view HHOG_LUNGS_LUNGWORM_CONGESTED_GC.jpg (79591 bytes) Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view cap_a_DruB.jpg (72492 bytes) Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view Click here for full-screen view

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

..

 

Return to top of page

General and References

Disease Summary

Parasitic (nematode worm) lung infection which can cause breathing problems.
HEDGEHOGS A common parasitic lung infection which may cause severe respiratory signs. 

Return to top of page

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Hedgehog lungworm infection
  • Hedgehog Capillaria infection
  • Hedgehog Crenosoma infection

Return to top of page

Disease Type

 Bacterial Infection

Return to top of page

Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

Nematode worms:
  • Capillaria aerophila - Hedgehog lungworm. Earthworm is intermediate/transport host. Bipolar eggs. (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9, B337.3.w3); 10-13mm long (B228.9.w9)
  • Crenosoma striatum - Hedgehog lungworm. Slugs and snails are intermediate hosts. Direct, possibly transplacental transmission may also occur, as this nematode may be found in unweaned animals. (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9, B337.3.w3).Females 12-13mm long, 0.3mm across, males about half this size (B228.9.w9) = Strongylus striatus (J154.1976.w1)
  • Crenosoma lophocara described from the bronchi of two Erinaceus roumanicus sacer found in northern Syria. (J157.41.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum: Females 12-13 mm long, males 5-6 mm long. Viviparous. Larvae about 300 µm. Adults live in the bronchi of the definitive host (hedgehog). First stage larvae are coughed up and swallowed or pass up the trachea by ciliary movements. They pass through the gastro-intestinal tract and are shed in faeces. The L1 enters the foot of terrestrial snails (intermediate host) and develops (over three weeks) into the infective larva. Snails containing infective larvae are eaten by hedgehogs. The pre-patent period from ingestion by the hedgehog to shedding of larvae in the faeces is 21 days. (B291.12.w12)
  • "Capillaria aerophila group": may consist of two species, Capillaria aerophila (Thominx aerophilus) and Capillaria tenuis (Eucoleus tenuis). Both males and females are hair-like worms about 10-13 mm long. Eggs are passed in the faeces. Infective eggs may be consumed directly or by eating earthworms which have consumed the eggs. The eggs are very resistant and survive for a long time in the environment. (B291.12.w12)

Infective "Taxa"

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

Return to top of page

References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne
Click image for main Reference Section

Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B24, B46, B272.3.w3, B291.12.w12
P23.1999S.w8

Other References

Code and Title List

J46.215.w1, J138.61.w1

Return to top of page

Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General 
  • Rhino-tracheitis, bronchitis and/or bronchopneumonia (with secondary bacterial infection), with associated respiratory tract signs such as tachypneoa, dyspnoea and coughing. (B24, B46)
  • In foxes, bronchopneumonia with coughing, sneezing, dyspnoea, nasal discharge, anorexia, cachexia, weight loss, weakness and sometimes death. (B272.3.w3)

Clinical Characteristics

HEDGEHOGS Signs vary from inapparent or minimal to severe respiratory distress and death in some individuals.

General signs:

  • Seen mainly in severely affected individuals.
  • Weight loss which in very severe infection may reach emaciation, with concave flanks.(J15.21.w1, J77.87.w1, B22.22.w3, B228.9.w9, B284.6.w6, B291.12.w12, V.w26)
  • Inappetance. (J154.1976.w1)
  • Reduced activity. (J154.1976.w1)
  • Weakness.(J15.21.w1, B284.6.w6, V.w26)
  • Ataxic staggering gait. (V.w26)
  • Death. (B156.7.w7)

Respiratory signs:

Ocular signs:

  • Conjunctivitis. (J77.87.w1) [may be associated with secondary Bordetella bronchiseptica infection]

Incubation

HEDGEHOGS
  • Pre-patent period in the hedgehog of 21 days. (B272.3.w3)

Mortality / Morbidity

HEDGEHOGS

Morbidity:

  • Morbidity may be very high and may approach 100% in juveniles in autumn. (J15.21.w1)
  • Lungworm infection is considered to be common in Erinaceus europaeus in Britain (J21.69.w2, B284.6.w6) and may be present in the majority of hedgehogs (J60.1.w1), particularly juveniles in their first autumn. (B151, B284.6.w6)

Mortality:

  • Mortality my be high. (J15.21.w1)
  • Mortality may be seen with Crenosoma striatum together with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection. (B24)
  • Severe lung worm infection is considered to be the most frequent cause of death in hedgehogs. (B291.12.w12)

Pathology

HEDGEHOGS

Post-mortem findings:

  • Tracheitis and bronchopneumonia (J42.94.w1)
  • Trachea:
    • Tracheitis, variable in degree, with minimal to severe mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in the mucosa, submucosa, serosa.
    • Tracheal wall may be noticeably thickened with granulomatous lesions - lymphocytes, macrophages, occasional multinucleate giant cells. 
  • Lungs: 
    • Variable degree of inflammatory reaction, with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, including eosinophils.
    • Consolidating pneumonia may be seen in severe cases.
    • Microgranulomas (macrophages and multinucleate giant cells) may surround Capillaria ova and/or Crenosoma larvae. 
    • Bronchial epithelium may contain adult Capillaria  with encysted ova.
    • Bronchial lumen may contain adult Crenosoma containing larvae and may contain oedema fluid, mixed inflammatory cells, ova and larvae.
    • Alveolar ducts may contain single Capillaria  adult with ova or Crenosoma adult with larvae.
  • (J42.94.w1, J42.100.w1)

Return to top of page

Human Health Considerations

  • Occasionally humans may be infected with Capillaria aerophilla causing respiratory signs. (J42.94.w1, P23.1999S.w8)

Return to top of page

Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

Transmission is generally by ingestion of infected intermediate hosts such as slugs or snails, or (for carnivores) by ingestion of prey species (parantenic hosts of the lungworms) which feed on the intermediate hosts. (B272.3.w3) 
HEDGEHOGS Susceptibility:
  • Lungworms may be found in hedgehogs which are only a few weeks old. (J42.100.w1)

Transmission:

  • Capillaria aerophila infection is via ingestion of the intermediate/transport hosts: earthworms. (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9); direct life cycle (B24). The prepatent period is thought to be about three weeks. (B291.12.w12)
  • Crenosoma striatum - Hedgehog lungworm. 
    • Infection via ingestion of the intermediate hosts: slugs and snails (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9, B291.12.w12).
    • Direct life cycle; possibly transplacental transmission may also occur, as this nematode may be found in unweaned animals. (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9).
  • Infected hedgehogs may harbour one or both types of lungworm. (B291.12.w12)

Return to top of page

Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

  • Crenosoma striatum in young Erinaceus europaeus which had been overwintered after being taken in as debilitated "foundlings" in the autumn; signs of "frequent dry couch, inappetance and reduced activity." (J154.1976.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum 35/53 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Britain, including 4/20 nestlings (less than 6 weeks old, 5/6 weanlings (6-10 weeks), 3/3 juveniles (3-12 months), 14/20 adults (more than one year old) and 4/4 of indeterminate age. Capillaria aerophila in 21/53 animals including 2/20 nestlings (less than 6 weeks old, 2/6 weanlings (6-10 weeks), 1/3 juveniles (3-12 months), 12/20 adults (more than one year old) and 4/4 or indeterminate age. Mixed infections were found in a total of 16/53 individuals. (J42.100.w1)
  • Crenosoma lophocara described from the bronchi of two Erinaceus roumanicus sacer found in northern Syria. (J157.41.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum in 17/39 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus collected from north-east Scotland and from Cumbria. (J46.215.w1)
  • Lungworm infections (Capillaria and/or Crenosoma) in 70/410 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus examined post mortem 1975-1979; 36/70 were mixed infections with both parasites present. (J138.61.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum causing respiratory disease and death in a captive colony of Erinaceus europaeus and Aethechinus algerus; some also had Bordatella bronchiseptica infection. (J77.87.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum was found in five of six Erinaceus europaeus in Galicia in north-west Spain. (J169.37.w1)
  • Lungworms (species not stated) were considered to be present in all hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus of bodyweight above 300g. (J154.1981.w1)
  • Crenosoma sp. and Capillaria sp. commonly causing verminous pneumonia in hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in the UK. (J21.69.w2)
  • Verminous pneumonia with Crenosoma sp. or Capillaria sp. in 6/74 hedgehogs, including one Crenosoma sp. lungworm with associated Bordatella bronchiseptica in a hedgehog with pneumonia. Also Crenosoma striatum or Crenosoma sp. (unidentified) in four individuals without pneumonia. (J3.128.w2)
  • Crenosoma striatum in the respiratory tract of European hedgehogs. (J18.38.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum in the respiratory tract of Erinaceus europaeus in New Zealand. (J18.38.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum occurs in the bronchi and bronchioles of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus europaeus and Erinaceus europaeus centralrossicus in Europe and in the former USSR. (B272.3.w3)
  • Crenosoma striatum detected in faecal samples of 40.1% of 789 Erinaceus europaeus from Jersey; Capillaria aerophila also detected (Capillaria spp. in 55.9%, including intestinal Capillaria spp.). (P35.2.w1)
  • Eucoleus (?Capillaria) tenuis (liver and lungs), Physaloptera orientalis, Spiroptera erinacei (lungs) from European hedgehogs Erinaceus spp.. (J18.38.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum were found in 45% of faecal samples from 1849 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Germany, 1974-1983 (J166.91.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum were found in 35.9% of faecal samples from 1175 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Germany, 1984-1991. (J166.100.w1)
  • Faecal samples (643) from hedgehogs collected in three successive winters revealed parasitism in 55-79%, mainly Capillaria sp., Crenosoma striatum and Isospora rastegaivae); most heavily infected individuals were considered to be underweight. (J77.97.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum and/or Capillaria aerophila were found in 86% of lungs examined from 209 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus from Germany, winter 1980-81. (J162.28.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum in 72.3% and Capillaria aerophila in 40.7% of hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus at Pfaffenhofen and Crenosoma in 52% and Capillaria areophila in 15% of individuals at Glonn (both Upper Bavaria), Germany. (Th5)
  • Lungworms, described as possibly Crenosoma striatus in the bronchi of a hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. (J46.173.w1)
  • Crenosoma sp. (also Capillaria sp. and Phisaloptera sp.) in a European hedgehog. (P5.29.w4)
  • Crenosoma vulpis (fox lungworm) was recorded in hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Denmark during a survey 1994-1996. (J176.81.w1)

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

Return to top of page

Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

  • Crenosoma striatum 35/53 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Britain, including 4/20 nestlings (less than 6 weeks old, 5/6 weanlings (6-10 weeks), 3/3 juveniles (3-12 months), 14/20 adults (more than one year old) and 4/4 of indeterminate age. Capillaria aerophila in 21/53 animals including 2/20 nestlings (less than 6 weeks old, 2/6 weanlings (6-10 weeks), 1/3 juveniles (3-12 months), 12/20 adults (more than one year old) and 4/4 or indeterminate age. Mixed infections were found in a total of 16/53 individuals. (J42.100.w1)
  • Crenosoma lophocara described from the bronchi of two Erinaceus roumanicus sacer found in northern Syria. (J157.41.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum in 17/39 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus collected from north-east Scotland and from Cumbria. (J46.215.w1)
  • Lungworm infections (Capillaria and/or Crenosoma) in 70/410 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus examined post mortem 1975-1979; 36/70 were mixed infections with both parasites present. (J138.61.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum was found in five of six Erinaceus europaeus in Galicia in north-west Spain. (J169.37.w1)
  • Lungworms (species not stated) were considered to be present in all hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus of bodyweight above 300g. (J154.1981.w1)
  • Crenosoma sp. and Capillaria sp. commonly causing verminous pneumonia in hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in the UK. (J21.69.w2)
  • Verminous pneumonia with Crenosoma sp. or Capillaria sp. in 6/74 hedgehogs, including one Crenosoma sp. lungworm with associated Bordatella bronchiseptica in a hedgehog with pneumonia. Also Crenosoma striatum or Crenosoma sp. (unidentified) in four individuals without pneumonia. (J3.128.w2)
  • Crenosoma striatum in the respiratory tract of European hedgehogs. (J18.38.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum in the respiratory tract of Erinaceus europaeus in New Zealand. (J18.38.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum occurs in the bronchi and bronchioles of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus europaeus and Erinaceus europaeus centralrossicus in Europe and in the former USSR. (B272.3.w3)
  • Crenosoma striatum detected in faecal samples of 40.1% of 789 Erinaceus europaeus from Jersey; Capillaria aerophila also detected (Capillaria spp. in 55.9%, including intestinal Capillaria spp.). (P35.2.w1)
  • Eucoleus (?Capillaria) tenuis (liver and lungs), Physaloptera orientalis, Spiroptera erinacei (lungs) from European hedgehogs Erinaceus spp.. (J18.38.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum were found in 45% of faecal samples from 1849 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Germany, 1974-1983 (J166.91.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum were found in 35.9% of faecal samples from 1175 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Germany, 1984-1991. (J166.100.w1)
  • Faecal samples (643) from hedgehogs collected in three successive winters revealed parasitism in 55-79%, mainly Capillaria sp., Crenosoma striatum and Isospora rastegaivae); most heavily infected individuals were considered to be underweight. (J77.97.w1)
  • Crenosoma striatum and/or Capillaria aerophila were found in 86% of lungs examined from 209 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus from Germany, winter 1980-81. (J162.28.w1)
  • Crenosoma vulpis (fox lungworm) was recorded in hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Denmark during a survey 1994-1996. (J176.81.w1)

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

Return to top of page

Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

In ruminants clinical lungworm infections are seen when calves/lambs/kids are first exposed to larvae on pasture. (B504)

Return to top of page

Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

In hedgehogs: Europe, Middle East, former USSR, New Zealand. (J18.38.w1, B272.3.w3, J42.100.w1, J157.41.w1)

Return to top of page

Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

In hedgehogs: Europe, Middle East, former USSR, New Zealand. (J18.38.w1, B272.3.w3, J42.100.w1, J157.41.w1)

Return to top of page

General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

  • Clinical signs of respiratory disease such as tachypnoea, dyspnoea and coughing. (B24)
  • Finding first-stage larvae in the faeces. (B24, B272.3.w3)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Capillaria aerophila - Hedgehog lungworm.
    • Bipolar eggs in faeces.
    • Difficult to differentiate eggs from those of gastrointestinal Capillaria spp.
  • Crenosoma striatum - Hedgehog lungworm
    • Live larvae in faeces
  • (J15.21.w1)
  • The absence of eggs or larvae in a faecal sample does not rule out the presence of lungworms (J42.100.w1)

N.B. both parasites may be present in one hedgehog. (J42.100.w1)

  • Faecal examination by funnel concentration. (J154.1976.w1, B291.12.w12)
  • Faecal examination. (B151)
  • Extraction of first stage Crenosoma larvae by Baermann's funnel. (B228.9.w9, B291.12.w12)
  • Flotation may be used to detect Capillaria; flotation and sedimentation may detect massive infections of Crenosoma striatus. (B291.12.w12)
  • Eggs of Capillaria: 60-75 um long, generally dark brown, with a rough outer surface, bulging side walls and two polar caps. (B291.12.w12)
  • Larvae of Crenosoma striatum: about 300 µm long. (B291.12.w12)
    • Larvae are not shed evenly, therefore examination of faeces collected over two to three days may be required to detect infection. (B291.12.w12)
Faecal smear: 
  • Using e.g. a fine-bladed knife, smear a very small amount of fresh faeces onto a clean slide, add a drop of water, place a cover slip on top and examine under the microscope. (P35.4.w9, D95)
    • Recommended frequency: every hedgehog on admission (as soon as the first faeces have been produces), then twice weekly during hospitalisation. (P35.4.w9)
Related Techniques
WaterfowlINDEXDisInvTrCntr.gif (2325 bytes)

Return to top of page

Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

HEDGEHOGS Bacterial pneumonia.

Return to top of page

Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

HEDGEHOGS It has been suggested that hedgehog casualties in the UK should routinely be treated for Crenosoma striatum infection, since the condition is so common. (B284.6.w6)

Small burdens are common and do not necessarily require treatment. (B337.3.w3)

  • Levamisole is generally recognised as the treatment of choice although recommended dosage regimes vary:
    • 27mg/kg (e.g. Levacine, Norbrook; Levadin 75, Vétoquinol, Nilverm Gold, Mallinckrodt Veterinary Ltd.), three subcutaneous injections at 24 hour intervals. (J15.21.w1)
    • 27 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection, repeated at 48-hour intervals to give a total of three injections. (B284.6.w6)
    • 25 mg/kg subcutaneously repeated after seven days. (V.w26)
    • Levamisol 26 mg/kg bodyweight subcutaneous, single dose. Mix 1:4 with sterile water prior to injection to reduce stinging. (D94)
    • Levamisol 20 mg/kg subcutaneous, repeated after 48 hours; avoid injecting near the head and do not give to pregnant females or unweaned babies. For hedgehogs under 300g split the dose in half, giving 10 mg/kg in the morning and 10 mg/kg in the evening of the same day. (D107)
    • Levamisol 20 mg/kg bodyweight, three injections at seven day intervals (with adjunct therapy - see St Tiggywinkles' regime below). (B151)
    • 20 mg/kg bodyweight, with a second dose after 48 hours. N.B. 2.5% levamisole injectable solution (2.5% Citarin-L, Bayer) may be used undiluted but if the 10% solution is used it should first be diluted 1:10 with distilled water. (B291.12.w12)
    • 10mg/kg subcutaneous, repeated after 48 hours. (B156.7.w7)
    • Note: Adverse reactions have been rarely observed following levamisole treatment therefore it has been suggested that hedgehogs should be discretely and intermittently monitored for a period of approx. 30 minutes following administration. Hyperaesthesia (“jumpy” with exaggerated reactions), twitching, dyspnoea/gasping, excess salivation and cyanosis have been described. Hedgehogs with adverse effects may be treated with steroid therapy (dexamethasone) and supplemental oxygen (oxygen cage). (V.w26)
    • It has been reported that levamisole may cause abortion if given to pregnant females. (D95)
  • Levamisole 15-20 mg/kg subcutaneous injection. (J60.1.w1); plus 0.1ml Depo-medrone (methylprednisolone), plus enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg intravenous or subcutaneous twice daily and in severe cases etamiphylline camsyslate (Myllopyline V, Arnold) approximately 0.2 ml/kg subcutaneous (dose according to effect) and clenbuterol hydrochloride (Ventipulmin, Boehringer Ingelheim), by nebulisation. (J60.1.w1)
  • Fenbendazole 100mg/kg (e.g. Panacur, Hoechst) oral, once daily for five to seven days - may be given in food; (J15.21.w1); or 5mg daily for five days or 25mg once, oral. (B228.11.w11)
  • Mebendazole 100mg/kg (e.g. Telmin, Janssen) oral, daily for five to seven days - may be given in food (J15.21.w1).
  • Mebendazole 100mg/kg in food daily for five days, or levamisol 1% at 10mg/kg subcutaneous, two injections 48 hours apart., or febantel, 0.5ml/kg of a 10% suspension, daily for five days. (B156.7.w7)
  • Mebendazole (e.g. Telmin, Janssen, or Mebenvet, Janssen), 50 mg/mg mebendazole per animal up to 500 g bodyweight, 100 mg per animal over 500 g bodyweight. Administered in the evening on a small amount of food, for five days. (B291.12.w12)
  • Febantel (e.g. Bayverm, Bayer) oral, 50-100mg per kg bodyweight for five days. (B228.11.w11); oral 50 or 100 mg/kg bodyweight daily for five to seven days (in Germany Rintal, Bayer, 2.5% suspension). (B291.12.w12)
  • Fenbendazole 100 mg/kg orally daily for five days may be given in-feed. (B284.6.w6)
  • Tetramisole (Citarin) 0.2ml of 1% solution per 100g bodyweight for treatment of Crenosoma striatum infection.. (J154.1976.w1); 0.1ml per 100g body weight of Citarin-L 2.5%, subcutaneous, repeated after 48 hours. (J154.1981.w1)
    • Reduce dose to 0.06-0.08 ml per 100g bodyweight in debilitated animals and those weighing less than 300g. (J154.1981.w1)
  • Ivermectin may not be very effective against endoparasites in hedgehogs. (D107)
    • Ivermectin (single dose 0.02 or 0.03 ml/kg bodyweight subcutaneous) was considered to be 90.9% effective against lungworms. (Th5); 200 µg/kg bodyweight (subcutaneous) was considered to be totally effective in removing Crenosoma infection (based on thirty days of faecal examination) but Capillaria sp. [lungworm or intestinal species not distinguished] eggs were still produced. (P5.29.w4)
    • Onset of action of Ivermectin is slower than that of Levamisol and it may not be effective against severe infections. (B284.6.w6)

Treatments should be repeated if faecal examination shows the presence of larvae or eggs in the faeces 2-3 weeks after initial treatment. (B228.11.w11, B291.12.w12, V.w26)

In addition to anthelmintic treatment:

  • Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs may be required in acute cases. (D94)
  • Suggested additional therapy which may be used includes:

    (B284.6.w6, B337.3.w3)

  • St Tiggywinkles' worming regime:
    • Etamiphylline camsylate (Millophyline V, Arnold Veterinary Products) 28 mg/kg at the time of each dose of levamisole and repeated on the following day.
    • Methylprednisolone (Depo-medrone V, Pharmacia) up to 4mg/kg, single dose at the first treatment.
    • Amoxycillin (long acting preparation) 40 mg/kg at the first treatment, repeated twice more at three day intervals.
    • Oxygen therapy (in plant propagator) if showing respiratory distress.
    • Nebulisation of drugs in severely distressed individuals. 

    (B151)

Related Techniques

 

WaterfowlINDEXDisInvTrCntr.gif (2325 bytes)

Return to top of page

General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

HEDGEHOGS
  • Supplementary fluid therapy (oral electrolyte rehydration fluids and/ or subcutaneous fluids);
  • Anti-inflammatory treatment (e.g.cartrofen, dexamethasone) (care must be taken to balance any likely side-effects such as immunosuppression with steroid use (V.w6).
  • Mucolytics (bromhexine hydrochloride; Bisolvon, Boehringer);
  • Bronchodilators.
  • Antibiotics  may be indicated e.g. enrofloxacin (Baytril) 10mg/kg twice daily, amoxycillin/clavulonate (Synulox) 30-50mg/kg twice daily or clindamycin (5-10 mg/kg twice daily) as secondary bacterial infection e.g. Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection often occurs. (J15.21.w1)
  • Nebulisation may be used for hedgehogs with severe respiratory congestion, e.g. with acetylcysteine as a mucolytic and gentamicin as an antibiotic; care must be taken to ensure personnel do not come into contact with suspended droplets. (J15.21.w1)

(J15.21.w1, V.w26)

  • Keep warm (heat pad or lamp) and give fluid therapy as required. (D94)
Related Techniques
WaterfowlINDEXDisInvTrCntr.gif (2325 bytes)

Return to top of page

Preventative Measures

Vaccination HEDGEHOGS --
Prophylactic Treatment

HEDGEHOGS

  • Some authors suggest that lungworm infection is so common in Erinaceus europaeus in Britain that anthelmintic treatment (as described above: Specific Medical Treatment) should be given routinely to hedgehog casualties. (J60.1.w1, B284.6.w6)
Related Techniques
WaterfowlINDEXDisInvTrCntr.gif (2325 bytes)

Return to top of page

Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection

HEDGEHOGS

  • Prevention in captive hedgehog by not feeding snails (which may be infected with Crenosoma striatum larvae) is suggested. (B291.12.w12)
Population Control Measures HEDGEHOGS --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening HEDGEHOGS --
Related Techniques
WaterfowlINDEXDisInvTrCntr.gif (2325 bytes)

Return to top of page