Diseases / List of Parasitic Diseases / Disease description:

Tetrameres (Nematode) Infection in Waterfowl and Cranes

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

 

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General and References

Disease Summary

WATERFOWL Nematode infection of the proventriculus; infection common but clinical disease rare.

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • --

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Disease Type

 Parasitic - Roundworms

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

  • In waterfowl: Tetrameres spp. Tetrameres fissispina (wide distribution) and Tetrameres crami (synonym Tropisurus crami)(North America); Tetrameres americana (nematode worms) (B24, B48.20.w20).
  • In cranes: Tetrameres sp., Tetrameres grusi. (J11.59.w5, J328.41.w1)

Infective "Taxa"

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

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References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne
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Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B10.26.w11, B12.55.w1, B13.46.w1, B15, B16.19.w1, B24, 34, B48.20.w20
J1.30.w3
J4.99.w1

Cranes
B702.19.w19
J1.42.w14, J6.10.w4, J11.59.w5, J328.41.w1

Other References

Code and Title List

B91, B34,
J1.11.w5, J1.13.w7, J1.16.w8, J1.17.w6, J1.22.w4, J1.33.w4
J14.11.w1

Cranes
J1.19.w23, J1.20.w14
P99.1.w1

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General

WATERFOWL Damage to proventriculus, and blood loss, leading to impaired digestion, emaciation and anaemia, sometimes deaths.

Clinical Characteristics

WATERFOWL May result in anorexia, diarrhoea, poor growth, poor condition, emaciation and anaemia, sometimes death. (B13.46.w1, B16.19.w1, B48.20.w20).

Incubation

WATERFOWL Common infection of the proventriculus in North America, Europe and Asia (B15). Clinical signs may be seen with as few as 100 female worms and heavy burdens may cause mortality (B12.55.w1, B48.20.w20).

Mortality / Morbidity

WATERFOWL --

Pathology

WATERFOWL Anaemia (female worms feed on blood) and proventricular dystrophy.
Gross pathology
  • Proventriculus - May be inflamed and enlarged, with thickened wall and swollen mucosa containing roundish structures. Female worms (large, globular) in distended mucosal glands and males on mucosal surface or with female in gland.
Histopathology
  • Proventriculus - Distended crypts, adult female parasites surrounded by thin fibrous cysts; non-functional secretory glands. Local inflammation sometimes occurs, with infiltration of eosinophils, macrophages and lesser numbers of lymphocytes and epithelioid cells; also fibroplasia.

(J1.30.w3, J14.11.w1, B10.26.w11, B12.55.w1, B13.46.w1, B15, B16.19.w1, B24, B48.20.w20).

CRANES
  • Tetrameres sp. are found in the glands of the proventriculus (males free in the lumen). Distended glands may be visible grossly as nodules protruding into the lumen of the proventriculus.
  • Histopathologically, in addition to distension of the glands by the nematodes and atrophy of glands, there may be a thin fibrous cyst around the lesion, and there is sometime adjacent inflammation with leucocyte infiltration.
Gross pathology
  • In a group of recently-imported Grus virgo - Demoiselle cranes in Germany, numerous Tetrameres sp. nematodes were present in the proventriculus. No associated lesions were described in the proventriculus, but the cranes (which died from Newcastle Disease) were in poor general body condition. (J6.10.w4)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found in the proventriculus of 23/45 Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane in Florida, with females found in the glands and males free in the lumen of the proventriculus. [1973](J11.59.w5)
  • In a Grus antigone - Sarus crane in India. [1972](J328.41.w10)
    • On the luminal side, multiple dark red nodules projecting about 2 mm into the lumen; on incision of the nodules, exudate and blood-red fusiform or spherical spiruroid nematodes were released. (J328.41.w10)
  • In a Grus americana - Whooping cranes foster-reared by a pair of sandhill cranes and killed by a golden eagle in Colorado in 1981. [1983)(J381.50.w1)
    • GIT: in the proventriclus, a heavy infection of nematodes, later identified as Tetrameres grusi in the glands, plus one in the lumen. (J381.50.w1)
  • In the proventriculus of 11 Grus grus - Common crane examined in Iran after about 500 died during a period of unexpected cold weather early in winter 2000. [2006](J1.42.w14)
    • GIT: In the proventriculus, heavy burdes of Tetrameres grusi - 79-231 worms per crane. (J1.42.w14)
Histopathology
  • In a Grus antigone - Sarus crane in India. [1972](J328.41.w10)
    • Glands distended by adult female Tetrameres sp. nematodes (sometimes with a fibrous connective tissue capsule around the nematode) with resultant atrophy of the glands, with goblet cells on the surface of the glands showing disruption or hyperplasia, distension of gland lobules by inflammatory exudates, separation of intertubular and interlobular structures by proliferation of fibrous connective tissue and by mononuclear cell infiltrates, and marked thickening of the tunica propria by fibrous connective tissue and mononuclear leucocyte infiltration. (J328.41.w10)
  • In a Grus americana - Whooping cranes foster-reared by a pair of sandhill cranes and killed by a golden eagle in Colorado in 1981. [1983)(J381.50.w1)
    • GIT: in the proventriclus, both male and female Tetrameres grusi within the glands, with a small amount of pressure atrophy associated with gravid female parasites. (J381.50.w1)
  • In the proventriculus of 11 Grus grus - Common crane examined in Iran after about 500 died during a period of unexpected cold weather early in winter 2000. [2006](J1.42.w14)
    • GIT: Proventricular glands distended, containing adult and larval nematodes. Female nematodes usually had the posterior end protruding into the lumen of the proventriculus. Mucosal compression and attenuation/atrophy of glands. Around the lesions, in the submucosa, a thin fibrous cyst and sometimes  adjacent inflammatory cells. In some cranes, most of the proventriculus was affected and it was likely that there was resultant proventricular dysfunction. (J1.42.w14)

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Human Health Considerations

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

WATERFOWL Susceptibility:
  • Juveniles (ducklings) are particularly susceptible (B40.28.w28).
  • Clinical disease may be caused by small to medium burdens, e.g. of 100 or more females (B12.55.w1, B48.20.w20).

Transmission:

  • Transmission is by ingestion of intermediate hosts. Intermediate hosts of Tetrameres crami are aquatic crustacea (amphipods) such as Gammarus spp., Daphnia spp. and Hyalella spp.
  • Intermediate hosts of Tetrameres americana are grasshoppers and cockroach (B15, B24, B48.20.w20).

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Disease / Agent has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

Waterfowl
  • Anas boschas domesticus Domestic duck, Anas platyrhynchos Mallard, Anas rubripes American black duck, Anas strepera (Chaulelasmus streperus) Gadwall, Mareca (Anas) americana American wigeon, Anas crecca (Nettion carolinensis) green-winged teal, Nyroca (Aythya) marila Greater scaup, Nyroca (Aythya) affinis lesser scaup, Anas (Querquedula) discors blue-winged teal, Anas (Spatula) clypeata northern shoveler in North America. (B48.20.w20)
  • Massive infection (more than 100 worms) in a wild trumpeter swan Cygnus buccinator with concurrent gizzard worm Amidostomum anseris infection, in Canada (J14.11.w1).
  • Reported as 'frequently present', but without causing 'any noteworthy damage' in many species of ducks in the Western Lakes Areas, USA (J4.99.w1).
  • Recorded in wild black-bellied whistling duck Dendrocygna autumnalis in Texas, USA (J1.11.w5).
  • Recorded in wild northern shovelers Anas clypeata in southwest Texas, USA (J1.13.w7).
  • Recorded in wild mallard Anas platyrhynchos, American wigeon Anas americana, green-winged teal Anas crecca, blue-winged teal Anas discors in Oklahoma, USA (J1.16.w8).
  • Recorded in Mexican duck Anas platyrhynchos diazi (J1.22.w4).
  • Recorded in white-fronted geese Anser albifrons wintering in Texas (J1.33.w4).
  • Recorded in wild green-winged teal Anas crecca in southwest Texas, USA (J1.17.w6).
  • Anseranas semipalmata - Magpie goose (Tetrameres fissispina), Anser anser - Greylag goose (Tetrameres fissispina), Anser anser domesticus - Domestic goose (Tetrameres fissispina), Anser albifrons - Greater white-fronted goose (Tetrameres fissispina), Anser caerulescens - Snow goose (Tetrameres crami),  Anser indicus - Bar-headed goose (Tetrameres fissispina), Cygnus columbianus - Tundra swan (Tetrameres crami)Cygnus cygnus buccinator - Trumpeter swan (Tetrameres crami), Cygnus melanocoryphus - Black-necked swan (Tetrameres fissispina), Tadorna ferruginea - Ruddy shelduck (Tetrameres fissispina), Tadorna tadorna - Common shelduck (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - Domestic duck (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami, Tetrameres americana), Anas acuta - Northern pintail (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Anas americana - American wigeon (Tetrameres crami), Anas angustirostris - Marbled teal (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas clypeata - Northern shoveler (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Anas crecca - Common teal (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Anas cyanoptera - Cinnamon teal (Tetrameres crami), Anas discors - Blue-winged teal [taken to be synonymous with Anas erythrorhyncha in this reference] (Tetrameres crami), Anas falcata - Falcated duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas formosa - Baikal teal (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas penelope - Eurasian wigeon (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas poecilorhyncha - Spot-billed duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas querquedula - Garganey (Tetrameres fissispina), Anas rubripes - American black duck (Tetrameres crami), Anas strepera - Gadwall (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Anas superciliosa - Pacific black duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Somateria mollissima - Common eider (Tetrameres fissispina), Aythya affinis - Lesser scaup (Tetrameres crami), Aythya americana - Redhead (Tetrameres crami), Aythya collaris - Ring-necked duck (Tetrameres crami), Aythya ferina - Common pochard (Tetrameres fissispina), Aythya fuligula - Tufted duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Aythya marila - Greater scaup (Tetrameres americana, Tetrameres crami), Aythya nyroca - Ferruginous pochard (Tetrameres fissispina), Aythya valisineria - Canvasback (Tetrameres crami), Netta rufina - Red-crested pochard (Tetrameres fissispina), Aix galericulata - Mandarin duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Aix sponsa - Wood duck (Tetrameres crami), Cairina moschata - Muscovy duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Bucephala albeola - Bufflehead (Tetrameres crami), Bucephala clangula - Common goldeneye (Tetrameres fissispina,Tetrameres crami), Clangula hyemalis - Long-tailed duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Histrionicus histrionicus - Harlequin duck (Tetrameres fissispina), Melanitta fusca - White-winged scoter (Tetrameres fissispina), Melanitta nigra - Black scoter (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Mergus albellus - Smew (Tetrameres fissispina), Mergus merganser - Common merganser (Tetrameres fissispina, Tetrameres crami), Mergus serrator - Red-breasted merganser (Tetrameres crami), Oxyura jamaicensis - Ruddy duck (Tetrameres crami), Oxyura leucocephala - White-headed duck (Tetrameres fissispina). (B91)
Cranes
  • In a Grus antigone - Sarus crane in India, Tetrameres sp. was found in the proventriculus, with associated pathological lesions. [1972](J328.41.w10)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found in the proventriculus of 23/45 Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane in Florida (collected February 1970 to May 1972). [1973](J11.59.w5)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found in the proventriculus of 23/34 greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida sampled on wintering grounds in Florida, with mean prevalence of 22 parasites per crane (range 1 - 79). In ten cranes, spiruroid larvae which were probably this species were found in the proventriculus and under the lining of the gizzard. [1974](J381.41.w1)
  • In a group of recently-imported Grus virgo - Demoiselle cranes in Germany, numerous Tetrameres sp. nematodes were present in the proventriculus. [1981](J6.10.w4)
  • Tetrameres grusi  was found in the proventriculus of 54/203 Grus canadensis - Sandhill cranes (27) from a population which migrate from Alaskan, Canadian and Siberian breeding areas to wintering areas in Texas. Mean intensity of infection was 5.4, range 1 - 51 per crane. [1983](J1.19.w23)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found as a heavy infection in the glands of the proventriculus of a Grus americana - Whooping cranes foster-reared by a pair of sandhill cranes and killed by a golden eagle in Colorado in 1981. [1983)(J381.50.w1)
  • Tetrameres grusi was a common, abundant parasite of Grus canadensis - Sandhill cranes sampled from Alaska and Texas, USA, and Canada. Prevalence was 57% in cranes from Alaska, 57% in cranes from Canada, 39% in cranes from the Texas Panhandle and 56% in cranes from southern Texas. Intensity of infection was 1-2 per infected crane in Alaska, 2-28 in Canada, 1-20 in the Panhandle and 1 - 166 in southern Texas.[1984](J1.20.w14)
  • Tetrameres grusi were found in Grus grus - Common cranes in Europe (East Germany and Hungary). (P99.1.w1)
  • Heavy burdens of Tetrameres grusi were found in the proventriculus of 11 Grus grus - Common crane examined in Iran (about 500 died during a period of unexpected cold weather early in winter 2000). [2006](J1.42.w14)
  • Tetrameres spp. were found in 2.9% of 167 free-ranging Grus grus - Common crane from Germany; there were no obvious associated lesions. [2011](J1.47.w5)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found in the proventriculus of 18-52% of Grus canadensis - Sandhill cranes in Florida, 1970-1998, with 1-153 parasites per infected crane. (B702.19.w19)
  • Tetrameres williamsi was found in the proventriculus of 1/75 introduced Grus americana - Whooping cranes in Florida. (B702.19.w19)

 Host Species List

WATERFOWL

CRANES

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Disease / Agent has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

Waterfowl
  • Massive infection (more than 100 worms) causing inflammation of the proventriculus in a wild trumpeter swan Cygnus buccinator with concurrent gizzard worm Amidostomum anseris infection, in Canada (J14.11.w1).
  • Reported as 'frequently present', but without causing 'any noteworthy damage' in many species of ducks in the Western Lakes Areas, USA (J4.99.w1).
  • Recorded in wild black-bellied whistling duck Dendrocygna autumnalis in Texas, USA (J1.11.w5).
  • Recorded in wild northern shovelers Anas clypeata in southwest Texas, USA (J1.13.w7).
  • Recorded in wild mallard Anas platyrhynchos, American wigeon Anas americana, green-winged teal Anas crecca, blue-winged teal Anas discors in Oklahoma, USA (J1.16.w8).
  • Recorded in Mexican duck Anas platyrhynchos diazi (J1.22.w4).
  • Recorded in white-fronted geese Anser albifrons wintering in Texas (J1.33.w4).
  • Recorded in wild green-winged teal Anas crecca in southwest Texas, USA (J1.17.w6).
Cranes
  • Tetrameres grusi was found in the proventriculus of 23/45 Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane in Florida (collected February 1970 to May 1972). [1973](J11.59.w5)
  • Tetrameres grusi were found in Grus grus - Common cranes in Europe (East Germany and Hungary). (P99.1.w1)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found as a heavy infection in the glands of the proventriculus of a Grus americana - Whooping cranes foster-reared by a pair of sandhill cranes and killed by a golden eagle in Colorado in 1981. [1983)(J381.50.w1)
  • Heavy burdens of Tetrameres grusi were found in the proventriculus of 11 Grus grus - Common crane examined in Iran (about 500 died during a period of unexpected cold weather early in winter 2000). [2006](J1.42.w14)
  • Tetrameres grusi was found in the proventriculus of 18-52% of Grus canadensis - Sandhill cranes in Florida, 1970-1998, with 1-153 parasites per infected crane. (B702.19.w19)
  • Tetrameres williamsi was found in the proventriculus of 1/75 introduced Grus americana - Whooping cranes in Florida. (B702.19.w19)

Host Species List

WATERFOWL

CRANES

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

  • Uncommon infection in collections as intermediate hosts usually consumed and eliminated by the enclosed birds (B10.26.w1).
  • Life cycle suggests might build up during the summer, therefore producing a large population dangerous to late-hatched ducklings (B15).

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

North America, Europe, Asia (B15).

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

USA, Canada and elsewhere (J14.11.w1, B24).

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

WATERFOWL Parasites in mucus glands of proventriculus, may be seen most easily on inspection of serosal surface. Tetrameres crami males up to 4.1mm, females 1.5-3.5mm by 1.2-2.2mm; Tetrameres fissispina males 3-6mm, females 2.5-6 by 1-3.5mm. Females may be blood-red, almost spherical, within proventricular glands. Males slender, four rows of spines on body cuticle, usually free in lumen of proventriculus (B12.55.w1,B13.46.w1, B24, B48.20.w20).
Related Techniques
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

WATERFOWL --

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

 
WATERFOWL
  • Piperazine (piprazine) 45-200mg/kg oral single dose, or 6-10g per four litres drinking water for four days (B13.46.w1, B34).

For information on routine parasite control see Preventative Medicine for Birds - Parasite screening and Routine Control Measures

Related Techniques
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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques

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Preventative Measures

Vaccination WATERFOWL --
Prophylactic Treatment

WATERFOWL

For information on routine parasite control see Preventative Medicine for Birds - Parasite screening and Routine Control Measures
Related Techniques
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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection

WATERFOWL

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Population Control Measures WATERFOWL --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques
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