Hookworm Infection in Bonobos

Summary Information

Diseases / List of Parasitic Diseases / Disease summary
Alternative Names   Ancyclostoma infection.
Disease Agents
  • Hookworms known in great apes include Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. (B336.39.w39)
  • Eggs thin-shelled and ellipsoidal with rounded ends, containing a sparse morula (less than 16 cells); 65.1 (63-67) x 40.4 (39-42) Ám. Compatible with Necator americanus, Necator  congolensis, Trichostrongylus colubriformis. (B668.14.w14)
Infectious Agent(s) --
Non-infectious Agent(s) --
Physical Agent(s) --
General Description
Clinical signs in Great Apes
  • Anaemia, eosinophilia. General debility, with a potbellied appearance and dyspnoea on exertion. (B336.39.w39)
Further Information
Occurrence in Bonobos
  • Necator americanus has been reported in Pan paniscus - Bonobo. (J576.13.w2)
  • A study of parasites in faeces of bonobos from Lomako, October-December 1998 found hookworm eggs (similar to Necator americanus) in 16.1% of samples. (B668.14.w14)
  • Ancyclostoma sp. infections are commonly found in orphaned bonobos in Kinshasa. (D386.4.3.w4c)
  • In great apes, infection is diagnosed by identification of eggs in faeces; these should be cultured to produce larvae, allowing definitive identification. Identification of adult worms at necropsy. (B336.39.w39)

In great apes

  • Strict sanitation is important. (B336.39.w39)
  • Newly arrived animals should be quarantined and infected individuals should be isolated until they have been treated. (B336.39.w39)
  • A parasite monitoring programme should be used for early detection of infection. (B336.39.w39)
Associated Techniques
Host taxa groups /species
Author Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)

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