Diseases / List of Parasitic Diseases / Disease description:

Tick Infection (with special reference to Hedgehogs, Elephants, Bears, Lagomorphs, Ferrets and Cranes)

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

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GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

..

 

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General and References

Disease Summary

Infection with ticks, arthropod parasites which suck blood and can transmit various diseases.

In Ferrets
Tick infestations are commonly found on working ferrets and on ferrets that are housed outside. 

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Tick infestation

See also: Tick Paralysis in Waterfowl, Tick Toxicosis in Bears

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Disease Type

Parasitic Infection

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

  • There are many species of ticks within the families Ixodidae and Argasidae; they infect a wide variety of mammal and bird species. (B24, B46)
  • Ticks of the genera Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma may attach to free-ranging carnivores. (B22.32.w15)
Elephants

Loxodonta africana - African Elephant:

  • Two species of ticks, Amblyomma tholloni (Amblyomma - Bont ticks (Genus)) and Dermacentor circumguttatus (Dermacentor (Genus)) were found on a three-month-old elephant in Nigeria. It was noted that these ticks (both species) may transmit piroplasmosis (Nuttalia loxodontis) of elephants in the Congo. (J183.14.w9)
  • Twenty one different ixodid tick species have been collected from elephants; Amblyomma tholloni (Amblyomma - Bont ticks (Genus)) and Dermacentor circumguttatus (Dermacentor (Genus)) appear to be mainly ticks of elephants. (B451.10.w10)
  • Ticks which have been collected from African elephants include: Amblyomma astrion, Amblyomma cohaerens, Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma nuttali, Amblyomma paulopunctatum, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma tholloni, Amblyomma variegatum, Dermacentor circumguttatus, Dermacentor rhinocerinus, Haemaphysalis leachii, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus compositus, Rhipicephalus humeralis, Rhipicephalus longus, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus muehlensi, Rhipicephalus pravus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus senegalensis, Rhipicephalus simus. (B453.7.w7)

Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant:

  • On two wild Asian elephants in India, four different tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis spinigera, Rhipicephalus hamophysaloides and Ornithodorus savignyi were found. (P64.1.w3, P502.1.w5)
Bears
  • Dermacentor variabilis, Dermacentor albipictus, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes sp. (probably Ixodes cookei) on Ursus americanus - American black bears. (J1.11.w11, J1.14.w9, J345.3.w2)
  • Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, Amblyomma maculatum and Amblyomma americanum have been found on Ursus americanus - American black bear in Florida, USA, (B419.14.w14)
  • Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor cf. venustus, Dermacentor silvarum, Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi and Ixodes persulcus on Ursus arctos - Brown bear. (J345.3.w2)
  • Dermacentor silvarum, Dermacentor auratus, Haemaphysalis hystricus, Haemaphysalis formosensis, Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi and Ixodes persulcus on Ursus thibetanus - Asiatic black bear. (J345.3.w2)
  • Haemaphysalis hystricis, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Haemaphysalis semermis on Helarctos malayanus - Sun bear. (J345.3.w2)
  • Dermacentor compactus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma hussaini, Hyalomma monstrossum, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis spinigera and Haemaphysalis bispinosa from bears (species not specified). (J345.3.w2)
  • Ixodes ovatus, Ixodes nipponensis and Haemaphysalis flava were found on Ursus thibetanus - Asiatic black bear in Japan which were infected with a Hepatozoon sp. (J27.65.w3)
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus on one "dancing bear" in Turkey. (P85.1.w7)
Rabbits and hares
  • Ticks affect both wild and domestic rabbits. (B602.19.w19)

Ixodid (hard) ticks:

Argasid (soft) ticks:

Pikas

(B208.4.w4)

Ferrets
  • Ixodes ricinus are found on ferrets within the UK. (J213.12.w2, B627.16.w16)

Infective "Taxa"

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

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References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5); Nikki Fox BVSc MRCVS (V.w103); Gracia Vila-Garcia DVM, MSc, MRCVS (V.w67); Bridget Fry BSc, RVN (V.w143)
Click image for main Reference Section

Referees

Anna Meredith MA VetMB CertLAS DZooMed (Mammalian) MRCVS (V.w128); Richard Saunders BVSc BSc CertZooMed MRCVS (V.w121)

Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B24, B46, B208.4.w4

In Hedgehogs:
J15
.21.w1, B16.13.w13, B156.7.w7, B150.w1, B214.3.26.w11, B228.9.w9, B259.w7, B284.6.w6, B291.12.w12, B337.3.w3, P23.1999S.w8, D66, V.w26

In Loxodonta africana - African Elephant:

In Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant:

In Bears:

B16.9.w9, B22.32.w15, B338.23.w23, B419.14.w14
D252.w27, D270.VII.w7, D274
J1.11.w11, J1.14.w9, J345.3.w2, J417.24.w1
P85.1.w7

In Lagomorphs:

B208.4.w4, B284.10.w10, B601.13.w13, B602.19.w19, B606.4.w4, B610.23.w23, B614.11.w11 J213.4.w4

In Ferrets:
B627.16.w16, B631.17.w17
J16.30.w1, J213.12.w2

Other References

Code and Title List

In Hedgehogs:
J62.50.w1, J119.22.w1, J159.86.w2, J160.7.w1, J161.33.w1, J162.16.w1, J163.54.w1, J163.58.w1, J164.11.w1, J165.92.w1, J145.13.w2, J166.93.w1, 168.38.w1, J177.18.w1, J203.18.w1

In Lagomorphs:
J1
.11.w13, J1.9.w5, J1.11.w13, J1.19.w15, J1.26.w12, J1.24.w17, J1.36.w10, J11.55.w2, J40.4.w3, J40.7.w1, J40.8.w1, J40.19.w1, J40.24.w1, J62.53.w4, J62.54.w1, J62.58.w1, J62.62.w3, J62.62.w4, J66.57.w1, J91.41.w1, J91.68.w1, J110.30.w2, J110.31.w2, J184.51.w1, J332.47.w2, J381.37.w1, J332.47.w2, J469.55.w1, J469.125.w1, J469.136.w1, J469.151.w1, J469.153.w1, J469.288.w1, J469.360.w1, J469.424.w1, J469.442.w1, J469.495.w1, J469.530.w1, J469.782.w1, J497.20.w1, J524.60.w1

In Ferrets:
B232.10.w10, B629.13.w13, B631.24.w24
J215.23.w1

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General

 

  • Ticks are of veterinary importance due to:
    • the potential to affect their host causing
    • their capacity to act as vectors of diseases.
    • their role as intermediate host for other parasites
  • Ticks are important vectors of protozoal, viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases.
  • Ticks are considered to be the most important ectoparasite group on wild mammals. (B208.4.w4)
  • Note: ticks may transmit a variety of diseases including borreliosis, piroplasmosis, tularaemia, rickettsias and tick-borne encephalitis. (B22.32.w15)

(B24, B46, B208.4.w4)

Clinical Characteristics

  • Ticks are visible on the host. The main sites of attachment are the face, ears, axillae and inguinal areas. (B46)
  • In the same areas small inflamed nodules may be present; these are sites of previous attachment by ticks. (B46)
  • Sites of attachment may become infected and predispose the host to blowfly strike (see: Myiasis). (B46)
  • Infection with some tick species may lead to tick paralysis (see: Tick Paralysis in Waterfowl). (B46)
  • large numbers of ticks on young animals may lead to anaemia. (B22.32.w15)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Ticks visible attached to the animal; adult ticks may approach 1cm long when engorged with blood (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9)
  • Ticks may be anywhere on the body but are commonly found near the mouth, behind the ears, on the flanks and on the underside, particularly in the ano-genital region/around the base of the tail. (B228.9.w9, B259.w7, B291.12.w12)
  • Pruritus and local swelling may occur around sucking ticks. (B291.12.w12)
  • Heavy blood loss and associated weakness has been recorded associated with heavy infestations with ticks (J159.86.w2, B291.12.w12); anaemia (pale mucous membranes) may be seen associated with the presence of large numbers of ticks. (J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9)
  • Secondary infection may occur at the site of the tick bite, particularly if the body of the tick is removed and the head and forelegs left attached to the skin.
  • It is possible that in hedgehogs, as in other species, tick paralysis (see: Tick Paralysis in Waterfowl) may occur sometimes. (B228.9.w9)
ELEPHANTS
  • Ticks were found as a heavy infestation on a three-month-old elephant (Loxodonta africana - African Elephant) in Nigeria, below the ears, on the perineum, under the tail and along the belly. (J183.14.w9)
  • Four different tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis spinigera, Rhipicephalus hamophysaloides and Ornithodorus savignyi were found on two wild Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant in India. (P64.1.w3, P502.1.w5)
BEARS
LAGOMORPHS
  • Engorging ticks visibly attached. (J40.8.w1)
  • Anaemia: (B601.13.w13, B610.23.w23)
    • This may occur in severe infestations which result in blood loss with a normochromic, macrocytic anaemia. (B602.19.w19, J213.4.w4)
  • Poor body condition in severely parasitised individuals. (J40.8.w1)
    • Weight gain was reduced in a young Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit with a heavy tick burden, compared to an individual with only mild parasitism (single tick), even after the ticks were removed. (J332.47.w2)
  • Damage to the ear drum and ear: this may occur with infestations of ear ticks. (B610.23.w23)
  • Abscesses:
    • Small abscesses may occasionally form at the attachment site of an adult tick. (B284.10.w10)
    • In addition to small abscesses at the site of tick attachment, infection may spread to associated lymph nodes and to internal organs. (J40.8.w1)
  • Fur loss: this has been seen in heavily parasitised rabbits and was thought to be associated with the rabbit scratching to remove the ticks. (J332.47.w2)
  • Distribution: Most ticks attach around the head and neck of the host. (B208.4.w4, B284.10.w10)
    • Particularly the eyes and ears. (B208.4.w4)
    • On Romerolagus diazi - Volcano rabbit, ticks are found mainly on the face and the inside of the ears. (J469.360.w1)
    • Rhipicephalus eventsi: the immature stages colonise one part of the body, and adults another: the larvae and the nymphs can be found on the ears of rabbits and hares, and the adults on the perianal regions. (J1.9.w5) 
FERRETS
  • Ticks present on the ferret. (J16.30.w1, J213.12.w2, B627.16.w16)
    • These are usually found on the head and around the ears. (J16.30.w1)
  • Usually no other clinical signs. (J16.30.w1)
  • Ferrets may be anaemic if they have a heavy tick infestation. (J213.12.w2)

Incubation

  • Ticks are attached to the host for only a relatively short time during their lives; an adult female Ixodes ricinus feeds on the host for about 14 days, while larvae feed for about six days. (B46)
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS --
LAGOMORPHS
  • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris - the continental rabbit tick.
    • This tick has three stages to its life cycle and rabbits can host each stage. (B602.19.w19, J213.4.w4)
    • Most of the blood-fed stages of this tick drop from the rabbit during the six hour period before dusk when the rabbit is in its resting place. This timing of tick detachment concentrates the ticks and it enhances the host-finding for the next stage. (B208.4.w4)
  • Otobius lagophilus
    • This tick is parasitic as larvae and nymphs. The adults are found in the nest areas of lagomorphs. Females lay eggs which take three to eight weeks to hatch. The larvae then attach to a host and feed on lymph before they moult to nymphs. Nymphs will spend one month or longer feeding on the host and then they drop off to moult and mature. (B614.11.w11)
FERRETS --

Mortality / Morbidity

--
HEDGEHOGS
  • Hedgehogs are commonly found to have a few ticks attached. (B156.7.w7, B16.13.w13, B214.3.26.w11)
  • Large numbers of ticks may occur in debilitated and diseased animals. (V.w26); numbers may reach and pass 50 or 100 on one animal. (B228.9.w9)
  • The presence of large numbers of ticks attached to a single hedgehog may indicate that the hedgehog is suffering from an underlying problem causing debility and may, by blood loss, cause anaemia and thus debility. It is possible that blood loss from a very heavy tick burden could lead to death. (J159.86.w2, J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9, B337.3.w3)
ELEPHANTS
  • Ticks are important not so much for themselves as for the diseases which they may transmit. (B451.10.w10)
BEARS
  • Ticks may be found on debilitated bears. (B338.23.w23)
LAGOMORPHS
  • Ticks can affect both wild and domestic rabbits. (B602.19.w19)
  • Heavy tick infestation may have a "sporadic but serious effect on individuals in a population." (J332.47.w2)
  • Severe tick infestation can be fatal. (J11.24.w1, J40.8.w1)
    • Dead wild Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontail were found with severe anaemia and up to 120 attached engorging ticks. (J40.8.w1)
    • Experimentally, it has been shown that 80 or more engorging Dermacentor andersoni can kill a domestic rabbit within 5 - 7 days. (J11.24.w1)
    • Additional mortality of unweaned young may occur if females are fatally parasitised. (J40.8.w1)
  • In a study of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris infection in Lepus americanus - Snowshoe hare during the period of 1963 to 1976 in Alberta, Canada: 
    • Prevalence varied seasonally from near zero in winter (December to March) to nearly 100% in May to September, with intensity peaking in May to June and in August. (J1.26.w12)
    • "Mean numbers of corpora lutea and embryos tended to be lower among adult females with heavy tick infestations, and intra-uterine losses rose steadily from about 3 to 13% as tick intensities increased from none to heavy." (J1.26.w12)
  • Note: Rabbit ticks may act as vectors for:

(B601.13.w13, B602.19.w19, B610.23.w23, J213.4.w4)

FERRETS
  • Tick infestations are common in working ferrets and ferrets that are housed outside. (J213.12.w2)

Pathology

--
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS --
LAGOMORPHS In Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontail which died associated with heavy tick infections: (J40.8.w1)
  • Large numbers (20 - 120 engorging ticks around the neck and ears.
    • Skin of the neck oedematous and hyperaemic/congested
    • At the sites of tick attachment, small pus pockets.
    • Lymph nodes swollen or abscessed.
  • Lungs and kidneys visibly anaemic.
  • Blood appeared pale and watery.

(J40.8.w1)

FERRETS --

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Human Health Considerations

Zoonotic diseases carried by ticks that feed on rabbits
  • Tularemia (B601.13.w13, B602.19.w19, B610.23.w23, J213.4.w4)
    • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris is the primary vector for this disease among rabbits. "Infestations of 4000 to 5000 of H. leporispalustris/ rabbit were reported by Bishopp and Trembley (1945), who proposed that such infestations are likely to weaken the hosts". (B208.4.w4)
  • Lyme disease (B602.19.w19, J213.4.w4)
    • Borrelia burgdorferi (the agent of this disease) has been recovered from both Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris and Ixodes dentatus. (B614.11.w11)
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (B602.19.w19, J213.4.w4)
    • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris may maintain this disease in an enzootic cycle among wildlife species with movement of infected ticks between locations by migratory birds. (B208.4.w4)

Zoonotic diseases carried by ticks that feed on ferrets

  • Ticks from ferrets can transmit zoonotic diseases. (J213.12.w2, B627.16.w16)
    • Note: when handling ticks care should be taken. (B627.16.w16)

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

  • Mammals, birds and reptiles have the potential to become infected with ticks. (B24, B46)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Ticks are often present on hedgehogs. Hedgehogs which are unwell may tend to pick up more ticks as they are likely to rest more than usual, making it easier for ticks to reach them. (B337.3.w3)
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS
  • Orphaned cubs in poor condition are more susceptible. (D270.VII.w7)
  • Juvenile bears, in poorer condition than adults, may be more heavily infested with ticks in spring than are adults. (J345.3.w2)
  • Ticks may be found on debilitated Ursus americanus - American black bear cubs presented for hand-rearing. (B338.23.w23)
    • Usually no more than a few ticks should be present. If many are found, it indicates debility. (B338.23.w23)
LAGOMORPHS
  • Many of the Dermacentor species are capable of inducing a high level of resistance in their hosts. The characteristic responses include reductions in the following: weight of fed ticks, tick survival, moulting and oviposition. (B208.4.w4)
    •  One study reported that "induction of acquired resistance of rabbits to D. andersoni reduced experimental transmission of tularemia". (B208.4.w4)
  • There has been no evidence of tick resistance in Lepus americanus - Snowshoe hare. (B208.4.w4)
  • Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits reportedly acquire resistance to repeated infestation by Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks. (B208.4.w4)
  • In areas of high tick populations, neonates may be parasitised as early as 48 hours after birth. (J40.8.w1)
  • Juveniles may be fatally parasitised soon after leaving the nest. (J40.8.w1)
FERRETS
  • Working ferrets are more likely to acquire ticks. (J213.12.w2, B232.10.w10, B627.16.w16, B631.17.w17, J16.30.w1)
  • Tick infestations are seen in ferrets that are housed outside. (J213.12.w2, J215.23.w1, B627.16.w16, B629.13.w13)
  • Occasionally, ticks are brought in with infected bedding materials. (J16.30.w1)

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Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

  • Mammals, birds and reptiles have the potential to become infected with ticks. (B24, B46)

In hedgehogs:

  • Ticks are commonly found on hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus - West European hedgehog) (J15.21.w1)
  • Ticks recorded from European hedgehogs Erinaceus spp. include Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor sinicus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis numidinia, Ixodes hexagonus (hedgehog tick), Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick or sheep tick) Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In New Zealand only the cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosus has been found on hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). (J18.38.w1)
  • Ixodes hexagonus is found most commonly on European hedgehogs; Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps have also been found. Also on European hedgehogs, in Russia Dermacentor spp., in Israel Rhipicephalus bursa. (B228.9.w9)
  • In European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus up to nine adult female and four nymphs of Ixodes hexagonus were found at one time, on the sides of the body and in the ears. (J46.141.w1)
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus recorded on 45% of 45 Erinaceus concolor (Erinaceus concolor - East European hedgehog) (up to 20 ticks per hedgehog) and on 25% of long-eared hedgehogs Hemiechinus auritus (Hemiechinus auritus - Long-eared hedgehog) in Israel. (B228.9.w9)
  • In Iraq, on Hemiechinus auritus - long-eared hedgehog, Boophilus annulatus (up to 140 per hedgehog, mainly on the head, ears and chest), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (up to 16 per hedgehog on the anterior body and ears), Haemaphysalis erinacei (up to 12 per hedgehog on the head and chest) and Hyalomma detritum (two to 10 per hedgehog, more on the head than on the body) recorded. (J177.18.w1)
  • In Indian long-eared hedgehogs, examination of 126 animals found Rhipicephalus sanguineus, particularly on females. (B228.9.w9)
  • In the Nairobi area, Atelerix albiventris central African hedgehogs were found to carry Rhipicephalus simus and a few Haemaphysalis leachi. (B228.9.w9)
  • Haemaphysalis leachi has been recorded on a hedgehog in Tanzania. (B228.9.w9)
  • Haemaphysalis leachi, Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were recorded on several hedgehogs Atelerix albiventris (Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog) examined during a study in Nigeria. (J183.23.w1)
  • In Sudan Haemophylus spinulosa and Rhipicephalus simus have been described on Atelerix albiventris. (B228.9.w9)
  • Ixodes hexagonus - hedgehog tick is found on hedgehogs but also on dogs, ferrets and weasels. (B46)
  • Rhipicephalus pusillus and Ixodes hexagonus were found on hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Portugal during a survey of ticks on wild animals. (J159.86.w1)
  • A heavy infestation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (84 female and 87 male ticks) on a hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus with associated blood loss was reported from Portugal. (J159.86.w2)
  • A Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymph has been reported on a hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus in Brittany: outside the normal geographical range of this tick. (J160.7.w1)
  • Dermacentor marginatus was collected from the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus during a study in the upper Aragon region of Spain. (J161.33.w1)
  • Both Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus have been recorded as hosts of Ixodes ricinus. (J119.22.w1)
  • Erinaceus europaeus has been recorded as a host of the Ixodid tick Haemaphysalis flava in the Soviet Maritime Territory (J163.54.w1, J164.11.w1)
  • Hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus were found to be hosts of six ticks, including Ixodes persulcatus (found most commonly), Ixodes pavlovskyi , Haemaphysalis japonica, more rarely Haemaphysalis concinna and Dermacentor silvarum and very rarely Haemaphysalis flava, in the Soviet Maritime Territory (Soviet Far East). (J163.58.w1)
  • Hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus recorded as a host of larvae of Ixodes tranguliceps in northern Germany, 1977-78. (J165.92.w1)
  • Hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus were recorded as a host of Ixodes hexagonus in Switzerland. (J145.13.w2)
  • A study in Germany found that hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus, together with Mustelidae species, were the most important hosts of Ixodes hexagonus. (J166.93.w1)
  • A study in Germany collected 31 ticks from six hedgehogs presented to a veterinary clinic in north Baden. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus ticks were identified. (J32.65.w1)
  • A study in Zimbabwe discovered a new species Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) norvali on the southern African hedgehog Erinaceus frontalis (Atelerix frontalis) (Atelerix frontalis - South African hedgehog). (J62.50.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis erinacei on hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Italy. (J168.38.w1)
  • A hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus found in County Galway, Ireland, was found heavily infected with Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs. (J203.18.w1)

In elephants:

  • Ticks were found as a heavy infestation on a three-month-old elephant (Loxodonta africana - African Elephant) in Nigeria, below the ears, on the perineum, under the tail and along the belly. (J183.14.w9)
  • Ticks are found on elephants in the Congo where they may transmit piroplasmosis (Nuttalia loxodontis). (J183.14.w9)
  • Four different tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis spinigera, Rhipicephalus hamophysaloides and Ornithodorus savignyi were found on two wild Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant in India. (P64.1.w3, P502.1.w5)

In bears:

In Lagomorphs:

  • In one survey in Tennessee, 44% of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits had Amblyomma americanum. (B208.4.w4)
  • In a ten state survey in North America, 78% of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits were infested Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris. (B208.4.w4)
  • "Prevalence and intensity of I. dentatus on cottontail rabbits from Massachusetts were 85% and 11.6 (adult ticks, peak in April), 62% and 5.4 (nymphs, peak in October), and 85% and 54.7 (larvae, peak in September)". (B208.4.w4)
  • The larvae and the nymphs of Ixodes rubicundus can be found on Pronolagus rupestris saumzdersiae - Smith's red rock hare. (J1.9.w5)
  • In black-tailed jackrabbits Lepus californicus melanotus (Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit) in north-central Colorado, Dermacentor andersoni were found on 6/44 individuals (14%) and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were found on 11/44 (25%). (J1.11.w13)
  • In a study in California, Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit were found to be carrying Dermocentor occidentalis, Dermacentor parumapertus, Ixodes neotomae, Ixodes perfidus, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris. (J1.24.w17)
  • haemophysalis leporispalustris were found on 76%, Ixodes dentatus on 27%, Amblyomma americanum on 25% and Dermacentor variabilis on 5% of 45 Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontail from western Kentucky, USA, over a period of 15 months starting winter 1979. (J1.19.w15)
  • In a study of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris infection in Lepus americanus - Snowshoe hare during the period of 1963 to 1976 in Alberta, Canada, it was found that tick intensities were lowest when hare densities were at their highest. (J1.26.w12)
  • In one study in Northern California, 10 Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbits (19%) were carrying Dermacentor variabilis and nine jackrabbits (17%) carried Ixodes spinipalpis. (J1.36.w10)
  • Another study in California reported 24 of 26 Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbits were carrying Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks. (B208.4.w4)
  • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustis, Ixodes dentatus and larvae of Amblyomma sp., found on Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus (Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail); and larvae of Haemaphysalis leporis-palustis and Dermacentor variabilis found on Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit in North Carolina, USA. (J11.55.w2)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Haemaphysalis leachi, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes pilosus, Ixodes sp., Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus nitens, Rhipicephalus sp. were found. (J62.53.w4)
  • Both Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum were found on Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa. (J62.54.w1)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis leachi, Haemaphysalis  silacea, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes pilosus, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus nitens, Rhipicephalus punctatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus oculatus) were found on 117 individuals from Cape Province and Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis spinulosa, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus arnoldi, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus punctatus were found on 50 individuals from Orange Free State. It was suggested that this species was a good or preferred host for Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes pilosus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus, Rhipicephalus nitens, Rhipicephalus punctatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus oculatus) (J62.58.w1)
  • On Lepus capensis - Cape hare in South Africa, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus gertrudae and Rhipicephalus oculatus were found on 30 hares from Cape Province while on 34 individuals from Orange Free State, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyolomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus oculatus and Rhipicephalus punctatus were found. It was suggested that this species was a good or preferred host for Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus and Rhipicephalus punctatus. (J62.58.w1)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in the Transvaal, South Africa, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus decoloratus, Haemaphysalis leachi, Haemaphysalis sp., Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus kochi, Rhipicephalus  sp. (near Rhipicephalus  pravus), Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis were found. (J62.62.w4)
  • On Pronolagus rupestris - Smith's red rock hare in South Africa (Orange Free State), seven tick species were found: Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus arnoldi, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus punctatus. It was suggested that this species was a good or preferred host for Amblyomma marmoreum, Ixodes rubicundus, and Rhipicephalus arnoldi. (J62.58.w1)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa, around Pafuri, Kruger National Park, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus kochi, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus pravus) and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis were found; around Skukuza, Kruger National Park, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Aponomma sp., Boophilus decoloratus, Haemaphysalis leachi, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus pravus) Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis were found. in western Northern Transvaal, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus pravus), Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis. From hares around Hluhluwe, north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma spp, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis hoodi, Haemaphysalis  leachi, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus muehlensi, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sp. were found. (J62.62.w3)
  • On 42 Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in the Grahamstown district, South Africa, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis leachi, Haemaphysalis  silacea, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes sp., Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus oculatus), and another Rhipicephalus sp. were found. (J66.57.w1)
  • The bird and rabbit tick Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris was commonly found on Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi (Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail) in Lee County, Illinois, 1951-1954. Other species found included Dermacentor variabilis (variable wood tick) and Eastern rabbit tick Ixodes dentatus. (J40.24.w1)
  • In a study of Ochotona princeps - American pika in south-central Montana, USA, Dermacentor andersoni was detected on 24.4% of 45 animals from one location. (J381.37.w1)
  • In a study of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail in Virginia, Ixodes dentatus (eastern rabbit tick), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (rabbit tick) and Amblyomma americana (lone star tick), were detected. (J524.60.w1)
  • In a study of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail in a high density population on Fishers Island, New York, where they had been introduced, severe and sometimes fatal infestations of Ixodes dentatus and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were found. (J40.8.w1)
  • On a young Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit, 118 ticks, possibly Haemaphysalis sp. were found, while only a single tick was found on another individual. Heavy infection was also noted on an adult female. (J332.47.w2)
  • In 210 Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontails from Iowa, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris was found on the ears of two individuals collected near Ames, Iowa. (J40.4.w3)
  • Ticks, Ixodes dentatus and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were collected from cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontail) in the eastern United States. (J40.7.w1)
  • On Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit from Nevada, Dermacentor parumapertus and Otobius lagophilus were found. (J40.19.w1)
  • In a study in the northeastern United States, Ixodes dentatus and (less than 10% of ticks) Ixodes dammini) were found on Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits. (J91.41.w1)
  • On Nantucket Island, Massachusets, USA, Ixodes dentatus, Ixodes dammini and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris were found on Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits. (J91.68.w1)
  • In Sweden, ixodes ricinus (all life stages) can be found on both Lepus europaeus - Brown hare and Lepus timidus - Mountain hare. (J110.30.w2, J110.31.w2)
  • Ixodes ricinus on a Lepus europaeus - Brown hare in Austria. (J184.51.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris found on Sylvilagus transitionalis - New England cottontail. (J469.55.w1)
  • On Brachylagus idahoensis - Pygmy rabbit, Dermacentor parumapertus, Dermacentor andersoni, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris and Ornithodorus sp. have been found. (J469.125.w1)
  • Haemophysalis leporispalustris, Haemaphysalis justakochi, Amblyomina parvum, Amblyomma americana, Dermacentor variabilis, Ornithodoros puertorcencis and Ixodes dentatus on Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail. (J469.136.w1)
  • On Sylvilagus aquaticus - Swamp rabbit, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris. (J469.151.w1)
  • Found on Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit (ears, nose, around the eyes and occasionally on the feet). (J469.153.w1)
  • Dermacentor andersoni on Lepus townsendii - White-tailed jackrabbit. (J469.288.w1)
  • On Romerolagus diazi - Volcano rabbit, Ixodes neotomae was the first tick described; Ixodidae ticks can be found all year on these rabbits, with high numbers in the rainy season (larvae and nymphs conspicuous), mainly on the face and the inside of the ears. (J469.360.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Dermacentor albipictus and Dermacentor parumapertis on Lepus alleni - Antelope jackrabbit. (J469.424.w1)
  • Dermacentor paramapertus has been found on Lepus callotis - White-sided jackrabbit. (J469.442.w1)
  • Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, ixodes persulcus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis punctata on Lepus timidus - Mountain hare. (J469.495.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis  sp. and Dermacentor sp. on Lepus californicus - Black-tailed Jackrabbit. (J469.530.w1)
  • Amblyomma testudinarium, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis formosensis, Haemaphysalis hystricis and (host specific) Haemaphysalis pentalagi are found on Pentalagus furnessi - Amami rabbit. (J469.782.w1)

In Ferrets

  • Ixodes ricinus are found on ferrets within the UK. (J213.12.w2, B627.16.w16)

In Cranes

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this disease)

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Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

  • Mammals, birds and reptiles have the potential to become infected with ticks. (B24, B46)

In hedgehogs:

  • Ticks are commonly found on hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus - West European hedgehog) (J15.21.w1)
  • Ticks recorded from European hedgehogs Erinaceus spp. include Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor sinicus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis numidinia, Ixodes hexagonus (hedgehog tick), Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick or sheep tick) Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In New Zealand only the cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosus has been found on hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). (J18.38.w1)
  • Ixodes hexagonus is found most commonly on European hedgehogs; Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps have also been found. Also on European hedgehogs, in Russia Dermacentor spp., in Israel Rhipicephalus bursa. (B228.9.w9)
  • In European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus up to nine adult female and four nymphs of Ixodes hexagonus were found at one time, on the sides of the body and in the ears. (J46.141.w1)
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus recorded on 45% of 45 Erinaceus concolor (Erinaceus concolor - East European hedgehog) (up to 20 ticks per hedgehog) and on 25% of long-eared hedgehogs Hemiechinus auritus (Hemiechinus auritus - Long-eared hedgehog) in Israel. (B228.9.w9)
  • In Iraq, on Hemiechinus auritus - long-eared hedgehog, Boophilus annulatus (up to 140 per hedgehog, mainly on the head, ears and chest), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (up to 16 per hedgehog on the anterior body and ears), Haemaphysalis erinacei (up to 12 per hedgehog on the head and chest) and Hyalomma detritum (two to 10 per hedgehog, more on the head than on the body) recorded. (J177.18.w1)
  • In Indian long-eared hedgehogs, examination of 126 animals found Rhipicephalus sanguineus, particularly on females. (B228.9.w9)
  • In the Nairobi area, Atelerix albiventris (Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog) central African hedgehogs were found to carry Rhipicephalus simus and a few Haemaphysalis leachi. (B228.9.w9)
  • Haemaphysalis leachi has been recorded on a hedgehog in Tanzania. (B228.9.w9)
  • Haemaphysalis leachi, Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were recorded on several hedgehogs Atelerix albiventris examined during a study in Nigeria. (J183.23.w1)
  • In Sudan Haemophylus spinulosa and Rhipicephalus simus have been described on Atelerix albiventris. (B228.9.w9)
  • Ixodes hexagonus - hedgehog tick is found on hedgehogs but also on dogs, ferrets and weasels. (B46)
  • Rhipicephalus pusillus and Ixodes hexagonus were found on hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Portugal during a survey of ticks on wild animals. (J159.86.w1)
  • A heavy infestation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (84 female and 87 male ticks) on a hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus with associated blood loss was reported from Portugal. (J159.86.w2)
  • A Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymph has been reported on a hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus in Brittany: outside the normal geographical range of this tick. (J160.7.w1)
  • Dermacentor marginatus was collected from the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus during a study in the upper Aragon region of Spain. (J161.33.w1)
  • Both Erinaceus europaeus and Erinaceus roumanicus have been recorded as hosts of Ixodes ricinus. (J119.22.w1)
  • Erinaceus europaeus has been recorded as a host of the Ixodid tick Haemaphysalis flava in the Soviet Maritime Territory (J163.54.w1, J164.11.w1)
  • Hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus were found to be hosts of six ticks, including Ixodes persulcatus (found most commonly), Ixodes pavlovskyi , Haemaphysalis japonica, more rarely Haemaphysalis concinna and Dermacentor silvarum and very rarely Haemaphysalis flava, in the Soviet Maritime Territory (Soviet Far East). (J163.58.w1)
  • Hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus recorded as a host of larvae of Ixodes tranguliceps in northern Germany, 1977-78. (J165.92.w1)
  • Hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus were recorded as a host of Ixodes hexagonus in Switzerland. (J145.13.w2)
  • A study in Germany found that hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus, together with Mustelidae species, were the most important hosts of Ixodes hexagonus. (J166.93.w1)
  • A study in Germany collected 31 ticks from six hedgehogs presented to a veterinary clinic in north Baden. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus ticks were identified. (J32.65.w1)
  • A study in Zimbabwe discovered a new species Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) norvali on the southern African hedgehog Erinaceus frontalis (Atelerix frontalis) (Atelerix frontalis - South African hedgehog). (J62.50.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis erinacei on hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus in Italy. (J168.38.w1)
  • A hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus found in County Galway, Ireland, was found heavily infected with Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs. (J203.18.w1)

In elephants:

  • Ticks were found as a heavy infestation on a three-month-old elephant (Loxodonta africana - African Elephant) in Nigeria, below the ears, on the perineum, under the tail and along the belly. (J183.14.w9)
  • Ticks are found on elephants in the Congo where they may transmit piroplasmosis (Nuttalia loxodontis). (J183.14.w9)
  • Four different tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis spinigera, Rhipicephalus hamophysaloides and Ornithodorus savignyi were found on two wild Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant in India. (P64.1.w3)

In bears:

In Lagomorphs:

  • In one survey in Tennessee, 44% of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits had Amblyomma americanum. (B208.4.w4)
  • In a ten state survey in North America, 78% of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits were infested Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris. (B208.4.w4)
  • "Prevalence and intensity of I. dentatus on cottontail rabbits from Massachusetts were 85% and 11.6 (adult ticks, peak in April), 62% and 5.4 (nymphs, peak in October), and 85% and 54.7 (larvae, peak in September)". (B208.4.w4)
  • The larvae and the nymphs of Ixodes rubicundus can be found on Pronolagus rupestris saumzdersiae (Pronolagus rupestris - Smith's red rock hare). (J1.9.w5)
  • In black-tailed jackrabbits Lepus californicus melanotus (Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit) in north-central Colorado, Dermacentor andersoni were found on 6/44 individuals (14%) and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were found on 11/44 (25%). (J1.11.w13)
  • In a study of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris infection in Lepus americanus - Snowshoe hare during the period of 1963 to 1976 in Alberta, Canada, it was found that tick intensities were lowest when hare densities were at their highest. (J1.26.w12)
  • In one study in Northern California, 10 Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbits (19%) were carrying Dermacentor variabilis and nine jackrabbits (17%) carried Ixodes spinipalpis. (J1.36.w10)
  • Another study in California reported 24 of 26 Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbits were carrying Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks. (B208.4.w4)
  • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustis, Ixodes dentatus and larvae of Amblyomma sp., found on Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus (Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail); and larvae of Haemaphysalis leporis-palustis and Dermacentor variabilis found on Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit in North Carolina, USA. (J11.55.w2)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Haemaphysalis leachi, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes pilosus, Ixodes sp., Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus nitens, Rhipicephalus sp. were found. (J62.53.w4)
  • Both Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum were found on Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa. (J62.54.w1)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis leachi, Haemaphysalis  silacea, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes pilosus, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus nitens, Rhipicephalus punctatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus oculatus) were found on 117 individuals from Cape Province and Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis spinulosa, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus arnoldi, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus punctatus were found on 50 individuals from Orange Free State. It was suggested that this species was a good or preferred host for Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes pilosus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus, Rhipicephalus nitens, Rhipicephalus punctatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus oculatus) (J62.58.w1)
  • On Lepus capensis - Cape hare in South Africa, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus gertrudae and Rhipicephalus oculatus were found on 30 hares from Cape Province while on 34 individuals from Orange Free State, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyolomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus oculatus and Rhipicephalus punctatus were found. It was suggested that this species was a good or preferred host for Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus and Rhipicephalus punctatus. (J62.58.w1)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in the Transvaal, South Africa, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus decoloratus, Haemaphysalis leachi, Haemaphysalis sp., Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus kochi, Rhipicephalus  sp. (near Rhipicephalus  pravus), Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis were found. (J62.62.w4)
  • On Pronolagus rupestris - Smith's red rock hare in South Africa (Orange Free State), seven tick species were found: Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus arnoldi, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus punctatus. It was suggested that this species was a good or preferred host for Amblyomma marmoreum, Ixodes rubicundus, and Rhipicephalus arnoldi. (J62.58.w1)
  • On Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in South Africa, around Pafuri, Kruger National Park, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus kochi, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus pravus) and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis were found; around Skukuza, Kruger National Park, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Aponomma sp., Boophilus decoloratus, Haemaphysalis leachi, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus pravus) Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis were found. in western Northern Transvaal, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus pravus), Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus zambenziensis. From hares around Hluhluwe, north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma spp, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis hoodi, Haemaphysalis  leachi, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus muehlensi, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sp. were found. (J62.62.w3)
  • On 42 Lepus saxatilis - Scrub hare in the Grahamstown district, South Africa, Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Boophilus sp., Haemaphysalis leachi, Haemaphysalis  silacea, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes sp., Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus oculatus, Rhipicephalus sp. (near Rhipicephalus oculatus), and another Rhipicephalus sp. were found. (J66.57.w1)
  • The bird and rabbit tick Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris was commonly found on Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi (Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail) in Lee County, Illinois, 1951-1954. Other species found included Dermacentor variabilis (variable wood tick) and Eastern rabbit tick Ixodes dentatus. (J40.24.w1)
  • In a study of Ochotona princeps - American pika in south-central Montana, USA, Dermacentor andersoni was detected on 24.4% of 45 animals from one location. (J381.37.w1)
  • In a study of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail in Virginia, Ixodes dentatus (eastern rabbit tick), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (rabbit tick) and Amblyomma americana (lone star tick), were detected. (J524.60.w1)
  • In 210 Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontails from Iowa, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris was found on the ears of two individuals collected near Ames, Iowa. (J40.4.w3)
  • Ticks, Ixodes dentatus and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were collected from cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern cottontail) in the eastern United States. (J40.7.w1)
  • In a study of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail in a high density population on Fishers Island, New York, where they had been introduced, severe and sometimes fatal infestations of Ixodes dentatus and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were found. (J40.8.w1)
  • On Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit from Nevada, Dermacentor parumapertus and Otobius lagophilus were found. (J40.19.w1)
  • On a young Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit, 118 ticks, possibly Haemaphysalis sp. were found, while only a single tick was found on another individual. Heavy infection was also noted on an adult female. (J332.47.w2)
  • In a study in the northeastern United States, Ixodes dentatus and (less than 10% of ticks) Ixodes dammini) were found on Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits. (J91.41.w1)
  • On Nantucket Island, Massachusets, USA, Ixodes dentatus, Ixodes dammini and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris were found on Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail rabbits. (J91.68.w1)
  • In Sweden, Ixodes ricinus (all life stages) can be found on both Lepus europaeus - Brown hare and Lepus timidus - Mountain hare. (J110.30.w2, J110.31.w2)
  • In Alaska, USA, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris were found on 22 of 23 varying hares (Lepus americanus - Snowshoe hare) collected June to july. (J497.20.w1)
  • Ixodes ricinus on a Lepus europaeus - Brown hare in Austria. (J184.51.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris found on Sylvilagus transitionalis - New England cottontail. (J469.55.w1)
  • On Brachylagus idahoensis - Pygmy rabbit, Dermacentor parumapertus, Dermacentor andersoni, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris and Ornithodorus sp. have been found. (J469.125.w1)
  • Haemophysalis leporispalustris, Haemaphysalis justakochi, Amblyomina parvum, Amblyomma americana, Dermacentor variabilis, Ornithodoros puertorcencis and Ixodes dentatus on Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail. (J469.136.w1)
  • On Sylvilagus aquaticus - Swamp rabbit, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris. (J469.151.w1)
  • Found on Sylvilagus palustris - Marsh rabbit (ears, nose, around the eyes and occasionally on the feet). (J469.153.w1)
  • Dermacentor andersoni on Lepus townsendii - White-tailed jackrabbit. (J469.288.w1)
  • On Romerolagus diazi - Volcano rabbit, Ixodes neotomae was the first tick described; Ixodidae ticks can be found all year on these rabbits, with high numbers in the rainy season (larvae and nymphs conspicuous), mainly on the face and the inside of the ears. (J469.360.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Dermacentor albipictus and Dermacentor parumapertis on Lepus alleni - Antelope jackrabbit. (J469.424.w1)
  • Dermacentor paramapertus has been found on Lepus callotis - White-sided jackrabbit. (J469.442.w1)
  • Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, ixodes persulcus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis punctata on Lepus timidus - Mountain hare. (J469.495.w1)
  • Haemaphysalis  sp. and Dermacentor sp. on Lepus californicus - Black-tailed Jackrabbit. (J469.530.w1)
  • Amblyomma testudinarium, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis formosensis, Haemaphysalis hystricis and (host specific) Haemaphysalis pentalagi are found on Pentalagus furnessi - Amami rabbit. (J469.782.w1)

In Cranes

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this disease)

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

  • Ixodid tick infections occur mainly in temperate and tropical forest zones and wooded or shrubby grasslands. (B283)

  • Tick activity may vary seasonally: in Britain Ixodes ricinus is most active in March to June and August to November. (B46)
    • Activity of spring-feeding ticks starts when the temperature rises above 10°C; activity of autumn-feeders ends when the temperature drops below 10°C. Activity ceases during the summer due to high temperatures and low humidity. (B46)
  • The presence of ticks in a particular area may be affected by (micro)-environmental conditions: Ixodes ricinus is unable to survive in a relative humidity of less than 90% and when off the host lives in damp areas formed by e.g. mats of vegetation. (B46)
In Bears
In Lagomorphs

In the eastern USA, a definite seasonal difference was noted, with no or very few ticks (Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris and Ixodes dentatus) being found on cottontails in December to March, and very high prevalence and high numbers of ticks in April to May and again in October to November. (J40.7.w1) 

Ixodes spp.
  • Larvae of Ixodes dentatus are most active in autumn, with another small peak of activity in spring. Nymphs are active in autumn and winter and adults are most numerous in autumn and winter. (B208.4.w4)
  • Adult Ixodes neotomae have been collected from Lepus californicus - Black-tailed Jackrabbit in autumn and winter. (B208.4.w4)
  • On Romerolagus diazi - Volcano rabbit, Ixodidae ticks can be found all year, with high numbers in the rainy season. (J469.360.w1)
Dermacentor spp.
  • Immature Dermacentor parumapertus are found on rabbits during cool weather but adults may be found year round. (B208.4.w4)
Haemaphysalis spp.
  • In a study of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris infection in Lepus americanus - Snowshoe hare during the period of 1963 to 1976 in Alberta, Canada: "Prevalence was near zero from December through March, and near 100% among adult hares from May through September. Prevalence among juvenile hares approached 100% by age 2 mo, Intensity peaked for both adults and juveniles during May-June and again in August. " (J1.26.w12)
  • In a study of Sylvilagus floridanus - Eastern Cottontail in a high density population on Fishers Island, New York, where they had been introduced, severe and sometimes fatal infestations of Ixodes dentatus and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris were found in May, but in mid-September, no ticks were found on rabbits.(J40.8.w1)
In Ferrets
  • Ferrets are likely to be infested with ticks in spring and summer. (B232.10.w10)

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

  • Ticks have been found on hedgehogs in Europe, including Ireland and the UK, the Middle East, Africa and Asia (including the Soviet Far East). (B228.9.w9, J15.21.w1, J18.38.w1, J62.50.w1, J159.86.w1,J163.58.w1, J177.18.w1, J203.18.w1)
  • Ixodes ricinus are found on ferrets within the UK. (J213.12.w2, B627.16.w16)

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

  • Ticks have been found on hedgehogs in Europe including Ireland and the UK, the Middle East, Africa and Asia (including the Soviet Far East) (B228.9.w9, J15.21.w1, J18.38.w1, J62.50.w1, J159.86.w1,J163.58.w1, J177.18.w1, J203.18.w1)
  • In Europe, ticks of the genera Ixodes and Dermacentor; in North America, ticks of the genera Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma may attach to free-ranging carnivores. (B22.32.w15)
  • In the USA, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris is widespread, while Ixodes dentatus is found only east of the Appalachian Mountains. (J40.7.w1)

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

  • Adult ticks are easily visible on the host. The main sites of attachment are the face, ears, axillae and inguinal areas. (B46)
  • In the same areas small inflamed nodules may be seen; these are sites of previous attachment by ticks. (B46)
  • Ixodes ricinus is (adult female) a pale grey tick, bean shaped, up to 1cm long, with four pairs of legs. The male is only 2.0-3.0mm in length while nymphs are less than 2mm long. Larvae are usually yellowish, less than 1mm long, and have only three pairs of legs. (B46)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Ixodes hexagonus may be differentiated from Ixodes ricinus by the humped tarsi and by the fact that the spur on the first coxa does not overlap the second coxa. (B46)
ELEPHANTS
  • Diagnosis of ectoparasite infections in elephants is by observation of clinical signs together with identification of the parasite involved. (B10.49.w)
BEARS
  • Presence of ticks on physical examination. (B338.23.w23)
LAGOMORPHS
  • Presence of ticks on the animal.
  • There may be a macrocytic, normochromic anaemia in heavy infestations. (J213.4.w4)
FERRETS
  • Ticks present on the ferret. (J16.30.w1, J213.12.w2, B627.16.w16)
    • Check particularly on the head and around the ears for ticks. (J16.30.w1)

(Note: Lyme disease has not been diagnosed in ferrets. (B631.24.w24)

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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

  • Adult ticks are readily identifiable, at least to Family level, and infection with ticks, if the ticks are still present, is unlikely to be mistaken for another disease. 
  • Immature ticks, if found, may need careful examination under magnification to distinguish them from other ectoparasites such as mites and lice. 
  • Close examination under magnification is required to determine the species of tick involved. 

(V.w5)

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

  • Acaricides may be used in the form of dips, sprays, dusts, washes, impregnated ear tags, pour-ons and spot-ons and slow-release implants/boluses, depending on the host species to be protected. (B46, B283)
    • The frequency with which an acaricide needs to be applied depends on the life cycle of the tick and the required effect of control (e.g. preventing female Boophilus ticks from reaching engorgement) as well as on the period of persistence of the acaricide on the host following application. (B46)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Ivermectin, applied topically may be used. (J15.21.w1).
  • Fipronil (Frontline - Merial Animal Health) can be applied directly to ticks using a piece of cotton wool or a cotton bud tip. (V.w26)
    • Fipronil may be particularly useful when large numbers of small ticks are present. (B337.3.w3)
    • Fipronil may be used, sprayed sparingly; it is essential to ensure that the hedgehog is kept in a well ventilated environment during and after treatment. (B284.6.w6)
  • Application of Autan spray (containing DEET with isopropanol and perfume oil), to heavily tick-infested hedgehogs, has been reported to cause Ixodes hexagonus ticks to start leaving their host within two hours; it was reported that by 12 hours all the ticks were dead, 80% off the hosts and 20% still on the hosts. It was found that the propellant played little or no part in killing the ticks. (J162.16.w1)
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS
LAGOMORPHS
  • Ivermectin
    • 0.4 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection. (B601.13.w13, B602.19.w19, B610.23.w23)
    • This will kill any remaining feeding ticks. (B602.19.w19)

Contraindications:

  • Fipronil: adverse reactions have been reported. This product should not be used. (B601.13.w13, B609.2.w2)
FERRETS
  • Fipronil spray can be used topically on the ferret to treat for ticks. (B631.17.w17)
    • Note: When using fipronil the ferret must be kept warm (away from any naked flames), so the ferret does not succumb to hypothermia. Also ensure the ferret is completely dry before leaving it in an enclosed area, to avoid intoxication. (B631.17.w17)
  • Ivermectin can be used at 0.4 mg/kg systemically. (J213.12.w2)

Note: continual problems may be a result of a female tick laying her eggs in the ferret enclosure, and the ferret is getting re-infected. (B631.17.w17)

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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

  • Ticks may be removed physically, taking care not to leave the head in the skin when the rest of the tick is removed. 
  • Commercially-produced tick removal devices are available. Use of a commercial device with a slit (Tick Twister, O'Tom), which was placed between the tick's body and the animal's skin, then rotated, was found to give faster removal than use of forceps to grasp the tick and pull, and to result in less damage to the tick's mouthparts. (J3.159.w4)
  • Dabbing the tick with an ectoparasiticide (fipronil) then leaving the tick to fall off has also been used effectively. (J3.159.w5)
    • This may be less appropriate than physical removal if the tick is causing considerable irritation to the host. (J3.159.w6)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Physical removal. (B16.13.w13, B150.w1)
  • Physical removal using forceps. (B156.7.w7, B214.3.26.w11, B291.12.w12, D66)
    • Grasp the tick close to the hedgehog's body to reduce the risk of the head breaking off in the skin (this is less commonly a problem than it is with removing ticks from dogs). (B259.w7, B291.12.w12)
  • Physical removal of tick may be undertaken e.g. using a proprietary tick removal tool. (J15.21.w1); this may be the best way to remove ticks from hedgehogs (B284.6.w6)
    • A firm hold with forceps and a firm but gentle sideways pull usually removes the whole tick. (B228.9.w9)
    • Ensure that all of the tick's head is removed with the body on tick removal (V.w26); this may be easier to do than when removing ticks from dogs (B284.6.w6)
    • Application of methylated spirits or any neat alcohol may facilitate removal. (B224.9.w9)
    • Swabbing with ether or gasoline has been recommended prior to physical removal with forceps. (B214.3.26.w11)
    • Swabbing the tick with edible oil (e.g. cooking oil), glycerine or washing up liquid has been suggested to kill the tick and facilitate removal. (D66, B337.3.w3)
    • A small amount of antibiotic cream may be applied after the tick has been removed. (B337.3.w3)
ELEPHANTS
  • Ticks should be removed carefully; application of an oil suck as kerosene oil or a mixture of turpentine and oil has been suggested to encourage the ticks to loosen their hold on the skin, thus reducing the risk of leaving the tick's head behind, which may occur if the tick is removed forcibly. (B212)
  • Ticks on a three-month-old elephant (Loxodonta africana - African Elephant) in Nigeria were removed physically, using forceps. (J183.14.w9)
BEARS
  • Ticks may be physically removed from a chemically immobilised bear. (B16.9.w9, B338.23.w23);
    • Grasp the tick with artery forceps (hemostat clamp) and remove, with the bear sedated. (B338.23.w23)
LAGOMORPHS
  • Remove ticks with forceps. (B602.19.w19, B610.23.w23)
  • Ticks may be manually removed. (B601.13.w13)
    • Apply petroleum jelly or methylated spirit to kill the tick and then remove with a tick picker. (B606.4.w4)
  • Wear gloves to avoid contact with zoonotic agents. (J213.4.w4)
FERRETS
  • A tick hook can be used to remove ticks, as soon as they are noticed on the ferret. (J213.12.w2, B631.17.w17)
  • Note: care should be taken to remove the mouth parts from the skin of the ferret. (B232.10.w10, B627.16.w16)
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Preventative Measures

Vaccination
  • Vaccines are being developed against Boophilus spp. ticks. (B283)
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS --
Prophylactic Treatment

--

HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS --
FERRETS
  • Fipronil spray can be used topically on the ferret to prevent infestation. (B631.17.w17)

Note: When using fipronil the ferret must be kept warm (away from any naked flames), so the ferret does not acquire hypothermia. Also ensure the ferret is completely dry before leaving in an enclosed area to avoid intoxication. (B631.17.w17)

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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection
  • Habitats may be altered, e.g. by removal of vegetation, to reduce or remove the required humid microhabitats of ticks. (B283)
  • Chemical control with acaricides has been used in limited areas of the environment, e.g. for protection of people in recreational areas and to treat buildings such as dog kennels, barns, pig sties and houses. (B283)

HEDGEHOGS

--
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS
  • Maintain clean, dry conditions, particularly for orphaned cubs. (D270.VII.w7)
  • To eliminate larval and nymph stages of ticks, treat the environment where the bear is housed. (J417.24.w1)
LAGOMORPHS
  • "At a campground area in Kentucky, treatment with acaricide and mowing resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of A. americanum larvae and nymphs collected on
    opossums and rabbits
    ". (B208.4.w4)
FERRETS
  • If ticks are found on the ferret the enclosure will need disinfecting. This will minimise the chances of the ferret being re-infested. Note: the enclosure should be well ventilated and thoroughly dried before the ferret goes back in. (V.w143)
FERRETS --
Population Control Measures
  • For some tick species, removal of alternate hosts, or hosts of a particular part of the life cycle of ticks has been used in control of tick infections. This has limited applicability. (B283)
  • For some domestic species, control includes breeding of tick-resistant breeds. For example Zebu breeds (Bos taurus indicus) are more resistant to tick infection than are the European-based Bos taurus breeds). (B283)
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS --
FERRETS --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening
  • Quarantine may be used, and has been used to date, to prevent (or minimise the risk of) the spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases from one geographical location to another location. (B283)
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BEARS
  • Quarantine newly-arrived bears. (D270.VII.w7)
FERRETS --
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