Hyperthermia / Sunstroke / Heatstroke in Waterfowl, Cranes, Elephants, Bears, Lagomorphs and Ferrets

Summary Information
Diseases / List of Physical / Traumatic Diseases / Disease summary

Alternative Names

  • Heat prostration
  • Heat stress
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heat-related disease

Disease Agents

  • Direct sunlight, high environmental temperatures. (B20.14.w11, B345.4.w4)
  • Confinement in a poorly-ventilated space. (B345.4.w4)
  • Physical exertion (metabolic heat). (B345.4.w4)
  • Alterations to the thermoregulatory centres due to drugs. (B345.4.w4)
  • Bacterial infection. (B345.4.w4)
  • Thermal damage can result in cellular necrosis, hypoxaemia, and denaturalisation of protein that can lead to systemic problems: 
    • CNS: parenchymal haemorrhage, neuronal damage, and cerebral oedema.
    • Musculoskeletal: rhabdomyolysis.
    • Cardiovascular: myocardial ischaemia and necrosis, hypovolaemia, and cardiac arrhythmias.
    • Respiratory: pulmonary oedema.
    • Gastrointestinal: ischaemia and ulceration of the mucosa, bacterial translocation and endotoxaemia.
    • Renal / urinary: acute renal failure.
    • Hepatic: hepatocellular necrosis.
    • Haemic/immune/lymph: haemoconcentration, thrombocytopaenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.


Infectious Agent (s) --
Non-infectious Agent (s) --
Physical agents

General Description

Heat stroke: "a form of nonpyrogenic hyperthermia that occurs when heat-dissipating mechanisms of the body cannot accommodate excessive heat; can lead to multisystemic organ dysfunction". (B609.2.w2)

Clinical signs
  • High body temperature, above 41 C (105.8 F) for mammals. (D268.w1) Above 40 C (104 F). (B345.4.w4)
  • Extremities feel very warm. (B345.4.w4)
  • Increased heart rate and respiratory rate.(D268.w1) 
    • Heart rate rapid, pulse irregular. (B345.4.w4)
    • Breathing rapid and shallow. (B345.4.w4)
  • Progressing to dehydration, weak pulse, restlessness, dullness, incoordination. (D268.w1)
  • Convulsions, collapse and death if the body temperature remains above 42-43 C (107.6-109.4 F). (D268.w1)
    • Coma, death. (B345.4.w4)
In Waterfowl
  • Panting respiration, wings held hanging loosely/away from the body.
  • Ataxia, seizures.
  • Prostration, dorsal recumbency and death.
  • High body temperature (>108 F (42.2 C)) (B23.38.w2); normal body temperature is approximately 39.1-41.6 C (101.4-106.9 F) in waterfowl (B13.46.w1).

(B13.15.w10, B20.14.w11, B95).

In Cranes
  • Gaping/open-mouth breathing, rapid breathing/panting, holding the wings away from the body and drooped, staggering. (B12.56.w14, B115.5.w6)
  • Can be fatal. (B12.56.w14, B115.5.w6)
In Elephants:
  • Dullness and depression. (B10.49.w21, B64.27.w4, B453.7.w7)
  • Staggering. (B10.49.w21)
  • Hyperventilation. (B10.49.w21, B64.27.w4, B453.7.w7)
  • Agitation and convulsions. (B16.18.w18)
  • Sudden collapse. (B10.49.w21, B64.27.w4, B453.7.w7)
  • Death. (B16.18.w18)
  • Trunk paralysis may occur as a complication of sunstroke. (B212.w31)
In Bears
  • Panting. (J1.25.w6)
  • Apparent weakness. (P85.1.w4)
  • High body temperature. (D268.w1, J428.34.w1)
  • If the bear's rectal temperature rises above 104 F then it is hyperthermic. (D249.w13)
In Lagomorphs
  • Early findings are:
    • Weakness (B602.20.w20)
    • Depression (B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B606.13.w13)
    • Ataxia (B609.2.w2)
    • Anorexia (B600.13.w13)
    • Dehydration (J215.21.w2)
    • Note: High ambient temperatures have also been reported to affect the fertility of bucks in breeding colonies. Experimentally, it has been shown that New Zealand White male rabbits that were exposed for one to two days to an environmental temperature of 36.1C (96.8F) at 45% humidity were not as fertile as the control group of bucks that were not heated. Abnormal spermatozoa were found in the ejaculate of the heated bucks. (B614.15.w15)
  • Rectal temperature > 40-40.5 C (104-5 F) without signs of inflammation is suggestive of nonpyrogenic hyperthermia. (B600.13.w13, B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B603.1.w1, B604.5.w5, B606.13.w13, B609.2.w2) 
    • Over 41 C (106 F) indicates hyperthermia. (J213.1.w1); often over this in heat stressed rabbits. (J215.21.w2)
  • Neuromuscular signs:
    • Incoordination (B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B603.1.w1, B606.13.w13, J469.424.w1)
    • Weakness and disorientation. (J215.21.w2)
    • Seizures/convulsions (B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B603.1.w1, B606.13.w13, B609.2.w2, J215.21.w2)
    • Prostration (B604.5.w5, B614.15.w15)
    • Muscle tremors (B609.2.w2)
    • Stupor (B603.1.w1)
    • Collapse (B603.1.w1)
    • Coma (B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B609.2.w2)
    • Struggling, incoordination and jerky movements. (J469.424.w1)
  • Respiratory signs:
    • Rapid breathing (B600.13.w13, B604.5.w5, B609.2.w2, B611.17.w17, B614.15.w15)
    • Dyspnoea/respiratory distress (B603.1.w1, B606.13.w13, B609.2.w2)
    • Mouth breathing (B606.13.w13)
    • Blood tinged fluid from the mouth and nose. (B604.5.w5, B611.17.w17, B614.15.w15)
    • Respiratory arrest (B609.2.w2)
    • "Pant rapidly." (J213.1.w1)
    • In Lepus alleni - Antelope jackrabbit at lethal temperatures, "rapid decline in respiratory rate, followed by a slow, irregular, and gasping respiration." (J469.424.w1)
  • Cardiovascular signs:
    • Tachycardia (B609.2.w2)
    • Hyperaemic mucous membranes (B604.5.w5, B609.2.w2) - hypovolaemia. (J213.1.w1)
    • Petechiation (B609.2.w2)
    • Cardiac arrhythmias (B609.2.w2)
    • Cyanosis (B600.13.w13, B614.15.w15)
    • Cardiopulmonary arrest (B609.2.w2)
  • Gastrointestinal signs:
    • Haematochezia (B609.2.w2)
    • Melaena (B609.2.w2)
  • Urinary signs:
  • Death. (B600.13.w13)
  • Clinical pathology:
    • CBC - there may be anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, or haemoconcentration. (B609.2.w2)
    • Biochemistry - there may be:
      • Azotaemia (B603.2.w2, B609.2.w2)
      • Hyperalbuminaemia (B603.2.w2, B609.2.w2)
      • Increased levels of AST, ALT, and CK (B609.2.w2)
      • Electrolyte abnormalities. (B609.2.w2)
      • Elevation in BUN, glucose (severe), creatinine, globulin and GOT (AST). (J400.97.w1)
      • Metabolic acidosis. (J400.97.w1)
In Ferrets
  • Panting (hyperpnoea) (J16.30.w1, J29.6.w3, J213.4.w7); note: they may already be seriously hyperthermic by the time they start panting. (J29.6.w3)
  • Weakness/prostration. (J16.30.w1)
    • The ferret may be collapsed. (B631.18.w18)
  • Often, wetting of the skin with urine/faeces. (J16.30.w1)
  • The ferret will probably feel hot when touched. (B631.18.w18)
  • History, e.g. chasing, capture and handling. (D268.w1)
  • High body temperature, increased heart rate and respiratory rate. (D268.w1)
  • Note: Differentiate from infectious diseases, in which the body temperature may be raised. 
  • At necropsy, an autolysed carcass with extensive haemolysis and necrotic fat in the abdomen suggests extremely high body temperature. (P85.1.w4)
In Lagomorphs
  • History, e.g. hot day with ambient temperature greater than 85 F, outdoor rabbits in the sun with no shade or no drinking water; excessive exercise. (B609.2.w2)
  • Differential diagnoses:
    • Early clinical signs (e.g. lethargy and ataxia) are non-specific and are found in other diseases so history is an important factor in differentiating the cause. (B609.2.w2)
    • The neurological signs seen are similar to those of pregnancy toxaemia but there is no evidence of ketosis. (B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5)
In Ferrets
  • History, clinical signs and environmental conditions. (B631.18.w18, J16.30.w1)
    • In working ferrets, there is often a history of the ferret being confined to a carrying box with inadequate ventilation. (J16.30.w1)
    • The ferret may have been left in a car. (J16.30.w1)
    • Environmental temperatures above 32 C/90 F. (J16.30.w1)
Pathological findings
In Waterfowl
  • Dehydration, congested viscera, biliary stasis (liver green). (J5.23.w3).
In Bears
  • Carcass very autolytic, extensive haemolysis, necrotic fat in the abdomen. (P85.1.w4)
In Lagomorphs
  • Hyperaemia of tissues; in particular, the lungs and intestinal wall. (B604.5.w5)
  • Pulmonary oedema. (B603.3.w3)

Further Information

In Waterfowl
  • Waterfowl lose heat mainly by panting and through the foot webs.
  • Sunstroke is particularly a problem of ducklings or goslings not provided with access to shade on sunny days.
  • May occur in waterfowl during transportation, particularly in hot, overcrowded and underventilated conditions
  • Hyperthermia is also a potential problem of waterfowl which are being warmed from hypothermia or being warmed and dried after removal of oil by washing.
  • Potential problem during capture, particularly in high temperatures and with prolonged chasing.

(B13.46.w1, B20.14.w11, B23.38.w2, B95, V.w5)

In Cranes
In Bears
  • Bears lose heat mainly by heat exchange while breathing and if necessary by panting. They can also lose heat through direct contact of the body (particularly the lightly-haired areas such as the axillae) with cool surfaces.
  • Bears are susceptible to hyperthermia if chased (e.g. by helicopter to enable darting for capture). (J1.17.w12)
  • In the bears, Ursus maritimus - Polar bears are more susceptible. (J1.25.w11)
  • Ursus maritimus - Polar bears are more likely to overhead during capture operations in summer when ambient temperatures are highest and they have thick subcutaneous fat. (J1.25.w11)
  • Bears have an increased susceptibility to hyperthermia when anaesthetised with agents which cause reduced respiratory rate and/or depth, since this reduces heat exchange. (J1.21.w7)
    • Bears immobilised with tiletamine-zolazepam appear to maintain their ability to thermoregulate, and show increased heart rate and respiratory rate with high body temperatures, with the heart and respiratory rates then falling as the body temperature returns to normal. (J1.25.w11)
    • Bears immobilised with xylazine and ketamine have depressed heart rate and respiratory rate. (J1.25.w11)
  • Several bears have died due to hyperthermia during transport in crates in hot weather. (D247.10.w10)
  • Two Ursus maritimus - Polar bears died in separate transport-related incidents. 
    • A one-year-old male which had been very excited following separation from his mother was sedated with xylazine-ketamine [Xylazine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Bears] and placed in a crate for transport; he died one hour later. (P85.1.w4)
    • Another bear transported from Denmark to the Netherlands appeared weak, and died three hours after arrival. (P85.1.w4)
  • A yearling Ursus maritimus - Polar bear cub developed hyperthermia after six hours of anaesthesia. This was attributed to poor thermoregulation and one element of this was thought to be the fact that the bear's paws had been wrapped in plastic bags to maintain sterility. (J428.34.w1)
  • Ursus americanus - American black bear snared in the Great Dismal Swamp (Virginia and North Carolina, USA) then chemically immobilised were noted to have higher rectal temperatures than those reported for zoo bears; it was assumed this was associated with the stress of snaring. (J1.25.w6)
In Lagomorphs
  • Rabbits are particularly susceptible to heat stroke because they are unable to sweat and cannot pant effectively. (B600.13.w13, B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B614.15.w15)
  • In rabbits, the ears are important for thermoregulation. (B600.13.w13)
  • Pikas (Ochotona spp.) are very susceptible to overheating. They do not show thermal panting or sweating. (J510.40.w1)
  • Risk factors:
    • Ambient temperature greater than 28C (85F). (B604.5.w5)
    • High humidity (greater than 70%). (B604.5.w5)
    • Does that are heavily pregnant are particularly susceptible. (B604.5.w5, B614.15.w15)
    • Obesity (B603.1.w1, B604.5.w5, B609.2.w2)
    • A previous episode of heat stroke may predispose the animal to further episodes because of damage to the thermoregulatory centre. (B609.2.w2)
    • Underlying disease, e.g. cardiovascular or neuromuscular disease. (B609.2.w2)
    • Thick hair coat (B604.5.w5, B609.2.w2)
    • Older age (B604.5.w5)
    • Dehydration (B609.2.w2)
    • Direct sunlight (B604.5.w5)
    • Poor ventilation (B604.5.w5)
    • Crowding (B604.5.w5)
    • Poor transportation (B604.5.w5)
    • Confinement in a vehicle (B604.5.w5)
    • Pyschological stress and anxiety (B604.5.w5)
  • Prognosis is guarded to poor; rabbits with heat stroke often do not respond well to treatment. (B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5, B609.2.w2)
In Ferrets
  • Ferrets are most comfortable in temperatures of 15 - 24 C and are likely to overheat in temperatures above 30-32 C, particularly in high humidity. (B232.3.w3, B602.1.w1)
  • Ferrets lack sweat glands other than on the foot pads. (J213.4.w7)

Hyperthermia is an emergency situation and rapid treatment is essential.

  • In a chemically immobilised animal, stop any further administration of immobilising drugs. (B345.4.w4)
  • Cool the animal using water or ice:
    • Whole-body immersion (not the head) in water such as a stream, pond or tank is probably most rapidly effective, if available. (B345.4.w4)
    • Spray the body, particularly the abdomen and groin, with water. (B345.4.w4)
    • Pack cold water bags or ice onto the head and into the groin. (B345.4.w4)
    • Give a cold water enema. (B345.4.w4)
  • If available, douse the animal with alcohol; its rapid evaporation will cool the animal. (B345.4.w4)
  • Give cold lactated Ringer's solution intravenously or intraperitoneally. (B345.4.w4)
  • Ensure adequate ventilation. 
  • In chemically immobilised animal, administer the appropriate antagonist, intravenously if possible, otherwise split between two intramuscular sites. (B345.4.w4)
  • Note: treatment for acidosis or shock may be needed. (D268.w1)
In Waterfowl
  • Moving the birds into a cool, shaded area may be all that is required for mild hyperthermia.
  • Indirect fans or air conditioning may be used to lower the temperature inside an enclosed space.
  • Cooling with water may be useful: legs and feet may be placed in cool water, feathers may be wetted to the skin with cool water or with alcohol.
  • Cool water may be infused into the cloaca.
  • N.B. take care not to overcool.
  • Flunixine meglumine may be used to safely and rapidly reduce hyperthermia.
  • Low doses of intravenous or subcutaneous fluids should be given if the bird is in shock.
  • A single dose of fast-acting corticosteroid may be used.
  • Control of cerebral oedema may be assisted by the use of mannitol or furosemide/frusemide.

(B13.15.w10, B20.14.w11, B23.38.w2, B95).

In Cranes:
  • Move the crane into shade or indoors. (B115.5.w6)
  • Cool the crane using cold water (B12.56.w14, B115.5.w6); affected chicks may be placed in a chick swimming pool if available. (B12.56.w14)
  • Give intravenous or subcutaneous fluids to help counteract stress and shock. (B12.56.w14, B115.5.w6)
In Elephants
  • Erect shade over the animal. (B10.49.w21, B64.27.w4)
  • If the elephant has fallen in sternal recumbency it must be rolled into lateral recumbency. (B10.49.w21)
  • Cool the elephant:
    • Apply crushed ice to the front and top of the skull and spray the body with cold water. (B10.49.w21, B64.27.w4, B453.7.w7)
    • Administer cold water enemas - copious and repeated. (B10.49.w21)
  • Give steroids at a high dose rate, intravenously:
  • Following the immediate crisis: keep shaded, assist the elephant in regaining its feet, give steroids at a maintenance level, together with antibiotics. (B10.49.w21)
  • Ensure the elephant is rested until it has completely recovered. (B10.49.w21)
In Bears
  • Start procedures to cool the bear if its rectal temperature reaches 40 C. (J1.25.w6)
  • Cool using water or ice packs. (J1.25.w6)
  • Remove covers which may interfere with thermoregulation (e.g. plastic bags over paws for sterility during operations). (J428.34.w1)
  • Give a cold water enema. (J428.34.w1)
  • Reverse the anaesthetic.
  • Poor water over the bear (at least five gallons of water should be available). If on cool ground which will absorb heat (e.g. soil), then keep the bear's chest, abdomen and femoral triangles against the ground. In the field, it can be carried to and placed in a nearby stream or pool of water, leaving only its head out. (D249.w13)
    If necessary, give a cold water enema. [check for description elsewhere]
In Lagomorphs
  • Slowly reduce the body temperature of the rabbit until the rectal temperature becomes close to the normal range (or when it reaches 103 F to avoid hypothermia) by one of the following techniques:
    • Wrap in cool wet towels (B602.20.w20, B609.2.w2, B614.15.w15)
    • Immerse in tepid water (B601.11.w11, B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5, B606.13.w13, B609.2.w2, B614.15.w15, J215.21.w2)
    • Bathe with cold water. (B600.13.w13)
    • Spraying with tepid water (B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5, B606.13.w13, B609.2.w2, B622.6.w6)
    • Convection cool with fans/ cold hairdrier (B603.1.w1, B609.2.w2)
    • Evaporative cooling by using alcohol on the groin, axillae and foot pads. (B609.2.w2)
    • Wet the ears and use a hair drier set on cold to blow over the ears. (B600.13.w13)
    • Note: in pikas (Ochotona spp.), which have small ears, cooling may be better applied to the abdomen: here the skin is thin and blood flow high. (J510.40.w1)
    • DO NOT USE ICE as this can lead to peripheral vasoconstriction and therefore poor heat dissipation. (B609.2.w2)
    • Acepromazine may be useful as a vasodilator to increase peripheral heat loss. (B600.13.w13)
  • Treat seizures with diazepam. (B601.11.w11)
    • Use 1 to 2 mg/kg by intravenous injection to effect. (B609.2.w2)
  • Oxygen supplementation if necessary via nasal catheter, oxygen cage or mask. (B609.2.w2)
  • Intubate and artificially ventilate if necessary. (B602.20.w20, B609.2.w2)
  • Administer intravenous fluids (B602.20.w20, B603.1.w1, B606.13.w13, J215.21.w2)
    • Use shock doses of crystalloids e.g. lactated ringers solution at 60 to 90 mg/kg/hr by intravenous or intraosseous administration over twenty to sixty minutes, followed by a maintenance rate.
    • Alternatively, administer a crystalloid bolus at 30 ml/kg plus a hetastarch bolus at 5 ml/kg initially. This should then be followed by crystalloids at a maintenance rate and hetastarch, 20 ml/kg divided over a period of 24 hours. (B609.2.w2)
  • Treat cerebral oedema with mannitol (B601.11.w11)
    • Use feline or canine protocols. (B609.2.w2)
  • Treat ventricular arrhythmias
    • 1 to 2 mg/kg intravenously or 2 to 4 mg/kg by intratracheal administration. (B609.2.w2)
  • Treat metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate
    • 2 mEq/kg intravenously. (B609.2.w2)
  • Treat haemorrhagic diarrhoea with broad spectrum antibiotics (B609.2.w2)
  • The use of corticosteroids?
    • Corticosteroid therapy can be used to combat shock. (B603.1.w1)
    • If the rabbit is unresponsive then shock doses of corticosteroids can be used (B602.20.w20) e.g. methylprednisolone. (B601.11.w11); dexamethasone intravenously at 2 mg/kg. (B606.13.w13)
    • However, this is thought to be contraindicated by some who believe that corticosteroids have not been shown to be of benefit in this situation and rabbits are very sensitive to the adverse effects (gastrointestinal ulceration and immunosuppression) of topical or systemic administration of corticosteroids. (B609.2.w2)
  • NSAIDs are not indicated in heat stress (non-pyrogenic hyperthermia) because there is no alteration in the hypothalamic set point in this condition. (B609.2.w2)
If the rabbit recovers from heat stroke, monitor closely for several days for renal failure or metabolic abnormalities (e.g. metabolic acidosis). (B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5)
In Ferrets
Cool the ferret. (J213.4.w7)
  • Anaesthetise. (B631.18.w18)
  • Give oxygen if collapsed. (B631.18.w18)
  • Use a rectal digital probe (preferably) to measure the body temperature. (B631.18.w18)
  • Cover the ferret in wet cloths (not too cold, due to the risk of shock). (B631.18.w18)
    • Apply cold water or ice to the ferret. Provide ample ventilation. (J16.30.w1)
  • Monitor cardiac and respiratory function. (B631.18.w18)
  • Once the core temperature has returned to normal. place in a cool area; air fans may be used. (B631.18.w18)
  • Give anti-inflammatory and antibiotic cover. (B631.18.w18)
  • Avoid capture operations in high ambient temperatures (note: "high" temperatures will vary depending on the normal for the geographical area, therefore in Alaska, 26.6 C (80 F) is "high". (D268.w1)
  • When immobilising animals by remote injection of anaesthetic drugs, choose drugs and doses carefully to ensure a rapid knock-down and avoid excessive chasing.
  • Monitor rectal temperature, starting as soon as the animal can be handled safely and continuing throughout the immobilisation. (B345.4.w4)
  • Note: Underdosing with some drugs such as etorphine may lead to hyperexcitability with an associated increased risk of hyperthermia.


In Waterfowl
  • Always provide areas of shade in enclosures, including an area of shade over water, and particularly in any run or enclosure for downies, with consideration for the change in the direction of the sun during the day.
  • Avoid overcrowding in houses or during transport.
  • Avoid capture in high temperatures which predispose to the development of hyperthermia.
  • Monitor when heating hypothermic birds.

(B20.14.w11, B95, V.w5)

In Cranes:
  • Avoid handling cranes in high (over 32 C or 90 F) temperatures. (B115.5.w6)
    • If cranes must be handled at times of the year when these temperatures are occurring, handle only in the early morning when it is cooler, or handle the bird in a cooler shaded or air-conditioned indoor area. (B12.56.w14, B115.5.w6)
    • Avoid leaving a crane in a crate for more than 10 minutes at ambient temperatures above about 30 C/86 F. (B115.2.w7)
In Bears
  • Avoid capture in high ambient temperatures.
    • For polar bears, ambient temperatures of 15-25 C are "hot". (J1.25.w11)
  • Avoid excessive chasing e.g. with helicopters. 
  • Use adequate doses of anaesthetic agents to give a rapid knock-down and avoid excessive running. 
  • During anaesthesia, monitor rectal temperature carefully.
  • If the body temperature starts to rise, cool using water or ice packs.
  • If capturing bears in warm weather and the bear is panting or showing any other sign of overheating, dampen the bear with water. 
  • Keep captured bears in shade (i.e. out of direct sunlight). 

(J1.17.w12, J1.19.w10, J1.25.w11, J1.25.w6)

In Lagomorphs
  • Provide rabbits with the following particularly if the ambient temperature is > 29C (85F):
    • Shade (B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5)
    • Good ventilation (B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5)
    • Adequate supply of cool drinking water (B602.20.w20, B604.5.w5)
  • Rabbits should be housed at a temperature range between 16C and 21C (60.8F to 69.8F). This range is noticeably lower than those reported for other laboratory animal species. (B614.15.w15)
  • During periods of especially hot weather, the environment of housed rabbits may be cooled by water sprays, foggers or fans. (B604.5.w5, B611.17.w17, B614.15.w15)
  • Do not place indoor cages directly by a radiator or window. (B606.13.w13)
  • Animals that are particularly susceptible (e.g. heavily furred or obese rabbits) could be given a hair-cut. (B604.5.w5)
In Ferrets
  • Avoid exposure of ferret carrying boxes to direct sunshine, even in cool external temperatures. (J16.30.w1)
  • Ensure ferret carrying boxes have adequate ventilation. (J16.30.w1)
  • Ensure ferrets are not left inside a car. (B631.18.w18, J16.30.w1)
  • Always keep the ambient temperature below 30 F. (B631.18.w18)
  • Monitor ferrets carefully (monitor body temperature) when providing supplemental heat, for example after surgery if the ferret became hypothermic during the operation. (J29.6.w3)
Techniques linked to this disease
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Host taxa groups /species

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken).
Disease Author Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)
Referees John Chitty BVetMed CertZooMed MRCVS (V.w65)

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