|Diseases / List of Viral Diseases /
This disease page is currently
predominantly used in Wildpro to link
different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. Whilst basic information is
available, It does not contain detailed information.
||Phocine morbillivirus infection
virus (PDV) (B209.2.w2)
||-- Indirect / Secondary
- Serous to mucopurulent oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, ophthalmitis,
- Fever, lethargy, diarrhoea, nervous signs, abortion.
- Cervical and thoracic area subcutaneous emphysema, therefore inability to submerge.
- Airways containing mucopurulent, bloodstained or frothy exudate.
- Pneumonia; lungs congested, oedematous, fail to collapse.
- Interlobular, subpleural, mediastinal emphysema.
- Pulmonary abscesses
- Parasitic granulomas
- Commonly heavy lung nematode infections.
- Lymph node enlargement: mediastinal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal.
- Respiratory: Bronchointerstitial pneumonia - serofibrinous exudate,
leucocytes, macrophages and other mononuclear cells in lumen of alveoli and bronchi.
- Intra-alveolar hyeline membranes
- Suppurative bronchopneumonia associated with abscess formation; bacterial colonisation
of airways and alveoli. Infiltration of walls of alveoli with leucocytes and mononuclear
cells; fibroplasia in chronic cases, proliferation of type II pneumocytes, formation of
intra-alveolar, intra-bronchiolar and intrabronchial syncytia.
- Acidophilic inclusion bodies (10-20um diameter, round to ovoid, single or multiple, with
distinct borders) both intracytoplasmic and intranuclear, in nasal, tracheal and bronchial
epithelial cells; also in type II pneumocytes.
- Secondary bacterial and parasitic infections may obscure pulmonary syncytia and
- Central nervous system: nonsuppurative encephalitis. Cerebral
necrosis (necrosis of neurons and glial cells, often in a laminar pattern), perivascular
cuffing, astrocytosis, microglial infiltration, neuronophagia, focal demyelination.
Astrocytes and neurons may contain acidophilic inclusions (intranuclear and
- Lymphoid: spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, gut-associated lymphoid tissue;
marked necrosis and depletion of lymphocytes. Occasionally intracytoplasmic inclusions in
- Epithelial: Intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions may be seen in
epithelial cells of; urinary bladder, renal pelvis, biliary ductules, pancreatic ductules,
- Virus may be shed by the respiratory, urinary, faecal and ocular routes.
- Transmission is probably by aerosol and by direct and indirect contact.
- Transmission may be facilitated by behavioural factors such as hauling out and the
formation of large social groups.
- Clinical signs are not sufficient for diagnosis.
- Inclusions or viral antigen in smears from conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, buccal
mucosa, peripheral leucocytes.
Post mortem examination findings:
- Suggestive findings: lymphoid organ depletion of lymphocytes, type II pneumocyte
hyperplasia and formation of syncytia in lungs, airways, brain or lymphoid tissues.
- Pathognomonic: Acidophilic intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions in cells of
respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, lymphoid or CNS tissues.
- Immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescent labelling of morbillivirus antigens in tissue
sections (paraffin or frozen). Morbillivirus antigen may be detected in sections of e.g.
trachea, lung, brain, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, gastric mucosa, bladder epithelium,
renal pelvis epithelium.
- Antigen-capture ELISA on tissues.
- Nucleic acid hybridisation from tissue extracts.
- RT-PCR may be used for increased sensitivity.
- Virus isolation.
- Antibodies may be detected and titres determined using virus neutralisation tests or
- For individual animals: other diseases causing respiratory, enteritis and nervous signs,
ocular and skin lesions, abortion.
- For mass mortalities: e.g. algal toxins.
- Avoid exposure to morbilliviruses.
- Ensure quarantine of new animals.
- Inactivated canine distemper virus vaccines may be useful.
- Vaccines have been developed (inactivated whole virus canine distemper vaccine, and
immunostimulatory-complex-matrix subunit vaccine) and provided protection against severe
disease but not necessarily against respiratory tract infection.
- Supportive, including antibiotics, fluid therapy.
- Possibly anthelmintic treatment.
- Euthanasia if severe clinical signs.
- A study of sera from 200 Ursus maritimus - Polar
bears in the Canadian Arctic, collected 1989-1000, using a virus neutralisation test,
detected antibodies to phocine distemper virus (PDV) in six bears; all
six individuals (plus a further 42 which were PDV antibody negative)
were also seropositive to canine distemper virus (CDV); in five of the
bears the titre to CDV was higher than the titre to PDV. The results
were taken to indicate infection of polar bears with a morbillivirus,
more similar to CDV than to PDV, since at least 1989. (J1.40.w5)
- A survey of 191 serum samples from Ursus maritimus - Polar
bears collected from in the Bering, Chukchi
and East Siberian seas, 1987-1992, detected antibodies to
morbillivirus in 68 (35.6%). This included a two-year-old seropositive
cub with a seronegative dam and litter-mate. All seropositive cubs
were in the two-year-old cohort. It was not possible to determine
whether the antibodies detected were to canine distemper virus,
phocine distemper virus or an unidentified morbillivirus. (J3.138.w6)
- Antibodies to phocine distemper virus were detected in 3% of 38 Ursus americanus - American black
bears, 47% of 36 grizzly bears
(Ursus arctos - Brown
bear) and 35% of 60 Ursus maritimus - Polar bear
in Canada, from samples collected 1994-2001. (J3.155.w2)
|Techniques linked to this disease
|Host taxa groups /species
||Further information on Host species has only
been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and
Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature
review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed
(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this