Diseases / List of Viral Diseases / Disease description:

Reovirus Infection in Waterfowl and Cranes

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

 

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General and References

Disease Summary

WATERFOWL Viral disease seen in commercially-grown muscovy ducklings, and of commercial importance in areas with intensive muscovy duck production. Also reported associated with disease in goslings.

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Infection Myocarditis of Geese, Myocarditis Virus Infection of Geese, Muscovy Duck Reovirus Infection.

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Disease Type

 Viral

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

Reoviruses: different reoviruses cause disease in goslings compared with Muscovy ducks (B12.55.w1). Myocarditis Virus of Geese, Muscovy Duck Reovirus.
  • A reovirus causing chick mortality at Patuxent was similar to a reovirus seen in Psittacus erithacus - Grey parrots. (B115.8.w4)

Infective "Taxa"

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

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References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)
Click image for main Reference Section

Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B12.55.w1, B15, B32.28.w15
J3.123.w1
J6.10.w1, J6.21.w2

Cranes
B115.8.w4

Other References

Code and Title List

B32.37.w6

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General

WATERFOWL Disease in muscovy ducklings causing non-specific signs and with variable mortality; disease in goslings with various signs.
CRANES Mortality seen in crane chicks at Patuxent. (B115.8.w4)

Clinical Characteristics

WATERFOWL Clinical signs noted in an outbreak affecting Muscovy ducklings aged 10 days to six weeks old:
  • Non specific signs: general lethargy and reluctance to move, inappetance and diarrhoea, sometimes respiratory signs; variable mortality, stunting of survivors. Young ducklings may die without clinical signs. Older ducklings may show lameness (J6.10.w1, J6.21.w2, B15, B32.28.w15).

Clinical signs noted in an outbreak affecting Muscovy ducklings aged three weeks old: 

  • Inhibition of growth, impairment of plumage development (B12.55.w1).

Clinical signs noted in an outbreak affecting Goslings:

  • Sudden death. Somnolence, pyrexia, (38C), increased thirst but anorexia, nasal discharge and conjunctivitis, dyspnoea, occasionally greyish watery diarrhoea, peeling of skin from feet and bill, leg weakness, sometimes neck tremor or paresis (B12.55.w1).
CRANES
  • Deaths; no further details. (B115.8.w4)

Incubation

WATERFOWL --
CRANES --

Mortality / Morbidity

WATERFOWL
  • High morbidity, mortality usually 10-50% (J6.21.w2).
  • Up to 90% mortality reported in disease in three-week-old muscovy ducklings (B12.55.w1).
CRANES
  • Chick mortality was seen at Patuxent associated with a reovirus. (B115.8.w4)

Pathology

WATERFOWL Pathology noted in an outbreak affecting Muscovy ducklings aged 10 days to six weeks old:

Gross Pathology:

  • Liver: enlarged, friable, with white, slightly elevated pin-head sized foci, occasionally perihepatitis.
  • Spleen: enlarged, mottled, with white, slightly elevated pin-head sized foci.
  • Kidneys: swollen, pale.
  • Pancreas: swollen, pale.
  • Heart: usually fibrinous pericarditis
  • Conjunctivitis and occasionally air sacculitis sometimes seen.

Histopathology:

  • Heart: pericarditis with mononuclear cell infiltrate associated with fibrinous exudate.
  • Liver: Focal necrosis. Excessive glycogen deposition in hepatocytes, particularly in portal area, also small infiltrates plasmocytes, lymphocytes.
  • Spleen: focal necrosis
  • Pancreas: coagulative necrosis – not always seen but may be extensive.
  • Tendons: tenosynovitis: exudative inflammation of synovial sheath: hyperplasia of synovial epithelial cells, fibrinous exudate in synovial cavity, occasional infiltration of inflammatory cells into tendon. (usually found if more than one week from infection to death.
  • Depletion of lymphoid nodules bursa of Fabricius and Thymus – transient.

(J3.123.w1, J6.10.w1, J6.21.w2, B15)

Pathology noted in an outbreak affecting Muscovy ducklings aged three weeks old:

  • Pericarditis and airsacculitis (B12.55.w1).

Pathology noted in an outbreak affecting Goslings:

  • Myositis (B12.55.w1).
CRANES --

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Human Health Considerations

None.

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

WATERFOWL Outbreaks affecting Muscovy ducklings: Disease of muscovy ducklings only. Not pathogenic on experimental inoculation of goslings and Pekin ducklings (J6.10.w1, B12.55.w1, B15).

Outbreak affecting Goslings: Disease of young goslings only, clinical disease seen 5-21 days, resistance in older goslings. Replication in gastrointestinal tract of ducklings, but no clinical signs (B12.55.w1).

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Disease / Agent has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

Waterfowl
  • Muscovy ducklings Cairina moschata (J3.123.w1, J6.10.w1, J6.21.w2, B15).
  • Domestic goslings, Muscovy ducklings (B12.55.w1).
Cranes
  • Mortality was seen in crane chicks at Patuxent, due to a reovirus. (B115.8.w4)

WATERFOWL Host Species List

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Disease / Agent has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

-

WATERFOWL Host Species List

-

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

--

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

France, Israel, South Africa (B15).

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

-

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

WATERFOWL Other causes of high mortality in muscovy ducklings: muscovy duck parvovirus infection (Muscovy Duck Parvovirus infection) , goose parvovirus infection (Goose Parvovirus Infection), duck plague (Duck Plague) (B32.37.w6).

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques

--

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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

WATERFOWL No vaccine available, 1992.
Related Techniques

--

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Preventative Measures

Vaccination WATERFOWL --
Prophylactic Treatment

WATERFOWL

--
Related Techniques

--

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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection

WATERFOWL

--
Population Control Measures WATERFOWL --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques
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