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< >  Anas specularioides - Crested duck (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

EXTERNAL APPEARANCES

REPRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR

NATURAL DIET

RANGE & HABITAT

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Schopfente (German)
Canard huppé (French)
Anade jarjual (Spanish)
Pato crestón (Spanish)
Anas specularioides alticola Andean crested duck
Anas specularioides specularioides Patagonian crested duck
Lophonetta specularioides

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases

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References

Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B4, B8, B19, B25, B26.

Aviculture references:
J23.13.w7
B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, B128.w2
D1, D8

Other References

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Aviculture Information

Notes

General Information:
  • Dabbling Ducks are generally hardy, easy to maintain and easy to breed. Shelter may be required by some of the smaller species in winter. They should be provided with cover (including marginal pond cover) and loafing areas as well as water. A pen which is 50% water is suggested. The water may be shallow (i.e. no more than two feet deep is required), and muddy areas for dabbling in are also appreciated. These ducks are generally good in mixed collections, although the smaller and quieter species may be bullied. Territorial disputes between ducks of the same species may be avoided by keeping only one pair of each species in an enclosure, unless the area is very large. For a single pair of ducks a pen are of 50 to 100 square metres, depending on the size of duck, should be provided.
  • A diet based on wheat and pellets is suggested, with maintenance pellets changed to breeders pellets for the breeding season. Bread and greenfood are also appreciated. Grit should always be available, with soluble grit (e.g. oystershell grit) as a calcium source when breeding.
  • Most species are ground nesters and both close ground cover and ground level nest boxes should be provided. Hand-rearing is generally preferred, as these ducks are generally poor parents in captive conditions, particularly in enclosures shared with other waterfowl. These ducks are prone to hybridization, particularly with closely related species, which should be kept apart from one another.

(B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, D1)

Species-specific information:

  • Crested ducks are territorial and aggressive; they require a separate enclosure.
  • These ducks are bred fairly readily, although Andean crested duck Anas specularioides alticola may be less easy to breed than Patagonian crested duck Anas specularioides specularioides.They may nest in close ground cover, or perhaps a ground-level nest box, kennel or wigwam. Eggs are laid usually from March to May.

(J23.13.w7, B29, B30, B94, B128.w2, D1)

Aviornis UK Ringing Scheme recommended average ring size: Anas specularioides specularioides L 11.0mm; Anas specularioides alticola M 12.0mm (D8).

Management Techniques

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 20-24 inches, 51-61cm (B3, B1).
Adult weight General About 1000g (B1).
Male 1070-1180g (B3); mean 2.4 lbs. (B8).
Female About 900g (B3); mean 2.0 lbs. (B8).
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

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Head

Adult Bill Male Dark grey.
Variations (If present) --
Eyes (Iris) Male Orange-red (Anas specularioides specularioides); Yellow (Anas specularioides alticola).
Variations(If present) --
Juvenile Bill Dark grey.
Eyes (Iris) Orange-red (Anas specularioides specularioides); Yellow (Anas specularioides alticola).

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Legs

Adult Male Dark grey.
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Dark grey.

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Plumage

Adult Male Head and neck pale grey-brown with loose crest on neck, brown stripe wide around eye, tapering and fading towards back of head, whitish throat and foreneck. Breast, abdomen, flanks and ventral region pale grey-brown with darker spotting (dark feather centres) largest on flanks; pinkish on breast.

Tail and undertail coverts blackish, uppertail coverts and rump pale grey-brown, rest of upperparts darker grey-brown.

Wing earth-brown, secondaries iridescent bronze/green, with black subterminal band, wide white tips (speculum bronze-green with caudal black and white line).

Variations (If present) Anas specularioides alticola larger, darker, speculum pinker, underparts browner and less spotted.

Female: has a shorter crest.

Juvenile Shorter or absent crest, browner face, whiter abdomen.

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: Upperparts earth-brown with white spots on wing, sides of back, rump. Underparts, forehead and sides of face dirty-white with dark eyestripe.

Bill: Grey with pinkish lower mandible.
Feet: Dark grey.

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Reproduction

Reproductive Season

Time of year Geographical variation: Mainly January-March in Andes, mainly October-December in southern areas.
No. of Clutches May double-brood.

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Nest placement and structure

Usually on small islets or lake shores, occasionally much further from water. In vegetation, on the ground.

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average --
Range 5-8 (B1); 5-9 (B8).
Egg Description Cream coloured. Size: 63 x 46mm, weight: 56g (B3).

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Incubation

About 30 days (B1, B8).

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Hatching

Synchronous.

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Fledging

10-11 weeks (B1); 70-90 days (B8).

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Sexual Maturity

Males --
Females --

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Adults Wade, dabble, head-dip and up-end, in the shallows.
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building Nest as solitary pairs.
Incubation By female.
Newly-hatched Tended by both parents.
Juveniles

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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Highly territorial and aggressive.
Inter-specific Aggressive to other species in their territory.

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Sexual Behaviour

Monogamous.

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Predation in Wild

Black-crowned night herons and skuas take ducklings.

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Activity Patterns

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Circadian --

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Natural Diet

Adults

Mainly aquatic invertebrates: insects, insect larvae, molluscs, and crustaceans. Small amounts of aquatic plants, mainly filamentous algae.

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Newly-hatched

Mainly aquatic invertebrates: insects, insect larvae, molluscs, and crustaceans. Small amounts of aquatic plants, mainly filamentous algae.

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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal Anas specularioides alticola Andes, southern Peru to northern Argentina

Anas specularioides specularioides Central Chile and western Argentina southward to Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands.

Mainly sedentary, but high altitude and high latitude birds disperse to coasts in winter.

Occasional and Accidental

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Introduced

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Habitat

Marshes, swamps, lakes, pools and lagoons, fresh, brackish or saline, sea level to high elevation; sheltered bays on coast.

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Conservation

Intraspecific variation

Anas specularioides alticola Andean crested duck
Anas specularioides specularioides Patagonian crested duck

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)

Common (B1).

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing --
Threats --

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Captive Populations

Anas specularioides specularioides well established in collections, but Anas specularioides alticola very rare (B8).

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Trade

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