Kingdoms / Animalia / Craniata / Aves / Anseriformes / Anatidae / Stictonetta / Species
< > Stictonetta naevosa - Freckled duck (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

EXTERNAL APPEARANCES

REPRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR

NATURAL DIET

RANGE & HABITAT

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Oatmeal Duck
Monkey Duck
Stictonette tachetée (French)
Canard moucheté (French)
Affengans (German)
Pünktchenente (German)
Pato Pecoso (Spanish)
Pato manchado (Spanish)

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases

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References

Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B5, B8, B19, B25.

Aviculture references:
J7.44.w1, B139

Other References

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Aviculture Information

Notes

Freckled ducks, which are not common in collections, should be kept on a large body of open water or in a large aviary with plenty of water and loafing sites such as logs. Fresh flowing water has given the best breeding results. They may be maintained in a mixed collection but are unlikely to breed in such a situation. They may be kept fully flighted, although there is a risk of head injury if they are disturbed (particularly in late afternoon), as they tend to be flighty.

These ducks, which are filter-feeders in the wild, should be fed from floating trays or at the edge of the water. Pellets and grain may be provided, with a maintenance protein level of 15% suggested, increasing to 18% for breeding.

These ducks are not commonly bred and were only bred outside Australia for the first time in 1992. Breeding is best if a group of these ducks is kept together, when they will develop a hierarchy. Wooden framed wire trays over water should be provided for nesting, approximately 10-20cm (4-8 inches) above water level, with a branch or ramp for access.

Females with ducklings should be separated initially (at least ten days), as strange ducklings joining another group may be killed.

Artificial incubation and hand-rearing may also be used; ducklings have been fed a wet mixture of chick (starter) crumbs and duckweed.

J7.44.w1, B139

Management Techniques

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 20-22" 50-55cm (B1, B3).
Adult weight General 691-1130g (B1)
Male 747-1130g av. 969g (B3); mean 2.1lb (B8)
Female 691-985g av. 842g (B3); mean 1.6lb (B8).
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

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Head

Adult Bill Male Heavy base, upturned, flattened distally. Slate grey with basal 1/3 bright red.
Variations (If present) Slate grey in female, no red on base.
Eyes (Iris) Male Brown.
Variations(If present) --
Juvenile Bill Slate grey.
Eyes (Iris) Brown.

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Legs

Adult Male Grey
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Grey

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Plumage

Adult Male Finely speckled buff-on-dark brown. Head shape triangular (feathers form a pointed crown)
Variations (If present) Females slightly smaller, plumage paler with less contrast.
Juvenile Paler.

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: Plain grey.
Bill: Grey
Feet: --

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Reproduction

Reproductive Season

Time of year June to December, with variation depending on water levels.
No. of Clutches In good years can produce two or more clutches.

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Nest placement and structure

Nest in reedbeds or in bushes on the water. Substantial deep bowl woven reeds and twigs with a down lining.

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average 7 (B1)
Range 5-10 (B1); 5-19 (B8).
Egg Description Ivory or pale creamy brown. Size: 63 x 47mm. Weight: 66g (B3)

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Incubation

26-30 days (B1); 26-28 days (B8).

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Hatching

Synchronous.

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Fledging

About 9 weeks (B1); 49-63 days (B8).

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Sexual Maturity

Males --
Females At two years old in captivity.

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Adults Filter feeders. Up-end in shallow water to bottom-filter, also dabble and nibble along the shore.
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building Nests are widely scattered.
Incubation Only female incubates. Male may remain nearby for part of the incubation period.
Newly-hatched Reared by the female alone. Defend ducklings strongly in their first five weeks. Females attack 'foreign' ducklings if broods intermingle.
Juveniles

Female may leave the brood at about 40-45 days, but the youngsters may remain in a ground for some time.

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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Often seen in groups of 10-100 individuals but can form larger flocks of over 1,000 outside the breeding season.
Inter-specific Vigorously defend youngsters against intruders.

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Sexual Behaviour

Pair bond breaks part way through the incubation period. Pairs re-form if the female leaves youngsters to lay again.

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Predation in Wild

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Activity Patterns

Roost in dense vegetation, or on open shores or shallow waters, and occasionally on offshore rafts.
Circadian Mainly nocturnal and particularly active at dusk.

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Natural Diet

Adults

Algae, seeds, aquatic plants and grasses; also minute crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic insects and their larvae, sponges and tiny fish.

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Newly-hatched

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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal

South-east Australia, extreme south-west Australia.

Disperses depending on water availability.

Occasional and Accidental

Occasionally found across Australia. Exceptionally reaches Tasmania.

Introduced

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Habitat

Fresh water lakes and lagoons with a good supply of emergent and fringe vegetation.

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Conservation

Intraspecific variation

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)

Possibly declining.

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing --
Threats Habitat loss, disturbance from recreation on waterbodies, illegal hunting (mistaken for other species).

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Captive Populations

Established in Australian and British collections, with smaller numbers in the USA.

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Trade

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