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< >  Anas cyanoptera - Cinnamon teal (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

EXTERNAL APPEARANCES

REPRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR

NATURAL DIET

RANGE & HABITAT

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Zimtente (German)
Sarcelle cannelle (French)
Cerceta colorada (Spanish)
Pato colorado (Spanish)
Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium Northern cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera tropica Tropical cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera borreroi Borrero cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera orinomus Andean cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera cyanoptera Southern cinnamon teal
Spatula cyanoptera

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases

Eclipse

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References

Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B5, B8, B19, B25, B26, B44.9.w1.

Aviculture references:
B7, B29, B30 B31, B40, B94, B95, B97, B128.w1, B128.w2).
D1, D8

Other References

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Aviculture information

Notes

General Information:
  • Dabbling Ducks are generally hardy, easy to maintain and easy to breed. Shelter may be required by some of the smaller species in winter. They should be provided with cover (including marginal pond cover) and loafing areas as well as water. A pen which is 50% water is suggested. The water may be shallow (i.e. no more than two feet deep is required), and muddy areas for dabbling in are also appreciated. These ducks are generally good in mixed collections, although the smaller and quieter species may be bullied. Territorial disputes between ducks of the same species may be avoided by keeping only one pair of each species in an enclosure, unless the area is very large. For a single pair of ducks a pen are of 50 to 100 square metres, depending on the size of duck, should be provided.
  • A diet based on wheat and pellets is suggested, with maintenance pellets changed to breeders pellets for the breeding season. Bread and greenfood are also appreciated. Grit should always be available, with soluble grit (e.g. oystershell grit) as a calcium source when breeding.
  • Most species are ground nesters and both close ground cover and ground level nest boxes should be provided. Hand-rearing is generally preferred, as these ducks are generally poor parents in captive conditions, particularly in enclosures shared with other waterfowl. These ducks are prone to hybridization, particularly with closely related species, which should be kept apart from one another.

(B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, D1)

Species-specific information:

  • Cinnamon teal are reasonably hardy but protection from frost suggested. Quiet, and suitable for mixed collections with other small ducks, they may be aggressive while nesting. Shallow, muddy water and good marginal pond vegetation should be provided. Feed as other dabbling ducks, with extra animal material while breeding and rearing.
  • These ducks breed fairly readily. Good natural cover such as long grass near water is desirable for nesting, but they may occasionally use ground-level nest boxes or baskets. May lay in April to May (B29) or early May to July (B31). Broody or artificial hatching and rearing of the delicate ducklings is suggested, with good protection from wet and cold. Chopped green food and mealworms should be added to starter crumbs to encourage feeding initially.
  • Readily hybridise with Anas discors - Blue-winged teal; should not be kept in same enclosure; hybrids also reported with Anas platalea - Red shoveler, Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard, Anas clypeata - Northern shoveler, , Anas flavirostris - Speckled teal, , Anas querquedula - Garganey, , Aix sponsa - Wood duck.

(B7, B29, B30 B31, B40, B95, B97, B128.w2).

Aviornis UK Ringing Scheme recommended average ring size: H 8.0mm (D8).

Management Techniques

Stimulating Feeding of Downies (Waterfowl)
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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 15-19 inches, 38-48cm (B3); 35-48cm (B1).
Adult weight General About 400g (B1).
Male Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium average 408g max 543g (B3); mean 14.4 ounces (B8).
Female Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium average 362g max 498g (B3);mean 12.7 ounces (B8).
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

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Head

Adult Bill Male Black.
Variations (If present) Female: grey.

Eclipse: grey.

Anas cyanoptera orinomus: longer bill.

Eyes (Iris) Male Yellow to red-orange.
Variations(If present) Dark grey.
Juvenile Bill Grey.
Eyes (Iris) Brown.

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Legs

Adult Male Yellow to orange..
Variations (If present) Dull yellow.
Juvenile Grey.

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Plumage

Adult Male Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium Head, neck breast, abdomen and flanks rusty-chestnut with brown crown. Undertail coverts black. Upperparts blackish with feather edges light brown, scapulars elongated, pointed, black striped with buff.

Wings have primaries and their coverts black-brown, rest of coverts grey-blue with broad white tips to greater coverts, secondaries metallic green.

Variations (If present) Female: Head and neck buff-brown with coarse darker streaking, darker crown , indistinct white patch by bill, indistinct darker eye line. Underparts reddish-buff with indistinct darker brown mottling and scallops on flanks, upperparts dark brown with pale buff feather edges. Primaries and their coverts black-brown, rest of coverts grey-blue with greater coverts mainly brown, with slight white markings, secondaries metallic green.

Eclipse: similar to female but rusty wash to plumage and retains male wing pattern.

Anas cyanoptera cyanoptera: male has browner abdomen, sometimes dark spotting on sides of breast, overall deeper red.

Anas cyanoptera tropica: heavy black spotting on underparts, blackish abdomen.

Anas cyanoptera borreroi: about half of males have spotted underparts.

Juvenile Similar to female, more buff than reddish, underparts more streaked.

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: Upperparts sepia brown with yellow markings, underparts and sides of head yellow, dark eye line and ‘ear’ patch.
Bill: Dark grey.
Feet: Dark grey.

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Reproduction

Reproductive Season

Time of year Begins late April in North America, September in South America.
No. of Clutches Will re-nest if clutch lost.

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Nest placement and structure

In the cover of grasses, usually near water, often on islands, a nest of dead grasses, lined with down.

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average 9-12 (B1)
Range 6-14 (B1) ; 9-12 (B8).
Egg Description White, pale cream or buff-pink. Size: 48 x 35, weight: 32g.

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Incubation

21-25 days (B1, B8).

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Hatching

Synchronous.

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Fledging

About 7 weeks (B1); 35-49 days (B8).

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Sexual Maturity

Males Presume Anas standard: one year old.
Females Presume Anas standard: one year old.

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Adults Mainly surface feeder, filter-feeding, dabbling, head-dipping, up-ending, also dives.
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building By female only. Nests solitary or in loose groups.
Incubation By female only.
Newly-hatched Tended by female only.
Juveniles

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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Usually found in small groups rather than large flocks.
Inter-specific --

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Sexual Behaviour

Male may leave his mate during incubation.

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Predation in Wild

Small mammals such as skunks, birds such as gulls.

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Activity Patterns

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Circadian --

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Natural Diet

Adults

Seeds, roots, vegetative parts of aquatic plants and seeds of grasses, also aquatic insects and their larvae, small molluscs and crustaceans.

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Newly-hatched

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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium west-central North America from British Columbia southward to North-western Mexico.

Anas cyanoptera tropica north-western Columbia

Anas cyanoptera borreroi eastern Andes, Columbia

Anas cyanoptera orinomus Andes, Peru to northern Chile

Anas cyanoptera cyanoptera southern Peru and southern Brazil southward to Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Islands.

Partially migratory: northernmost and southernmost populations move to lower latitudes for winter, to subtropical areas.

Temperate populations basically sedentary.

Occasional and Accidental

Vagrant to Alaska.

Introduced

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Habitat

Shallow freshwater areas, in open country, with abundant emergent and submerged vegetation plus open areas of water. Found from sea level to 5000m

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Conservation

Intraspecific variation

Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium Northern cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera tropica Tropical cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera borreroi Borrero cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera orinomus Andean cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera cyanoptera Southern cinnamon teal

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)

Common to locally abundant (B1).

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing Anas cyanoptera borreroi Critically Endangered. Anas cyanoptera tropica Endangered (B44.9.w1).
Threats Anas cyanoptera borreroi and Anas cyanoptera tropica threatened by loss of habitat and hunting (B44.9.w1).

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Captive Populations

Mainly Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium Northern cinnamon teal in collections (B8).

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Trade

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