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< >  Anas fulvigula - Mottled duck (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

EXTERNAL APPEARANCES

REPRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR

NATURAL DIET

RANGE & HABITAT

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Mottled mallard
Florida duck
Florida mallard
Anas platyrhynchos fulvigula
Anas platyrhynchos maculosa
A. f. fulvigula
Florida duck
A. f. fulvigula Florida mottled duck
A. f. maculosa Mottled Duck
A. f. maculosa Gulf mottled duck Florida duck
A. f. fulvigula Florida mottled duck
A. f. maculosa Mottled Duck
A. f. maculosa Gulf mottled duck

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases

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References

Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B5, B8, B19, B25.

Aviculture references:
B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, B128.w2
D1, D8

Other References

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Aviculture information

Notes

General Information:
  • Dabbling Ducks are generally hardy, easy to maintain and easy to breed. Shelter may be required by some of the smaller species in winter. They should be provided with cover (including marginal pond cover) and loafing areas as well as water. A pen which is 50% water is suggested. The water may be shallow (i.e. no more than two feet deep is required), and muddy areas for dabbling in are also appreciated. These ducks are generally good in mixed collections, although the smaller and quieter species may be bullied. Territorial disputes between ducks of the same species may be avoided by keeping only one pair of each species in an enclosure, unless the area is very large. For a single pair of ducks a pen are of 50 to 100 square metres, depending on the size of duck, should be provided.
  • A diet based on wheat and pellets is suggested, with maintenance pellets changed to breeders pellets for the breeding season. Bread and greenfood are also appreciated. Grit should always be available, with soluble grit (e.g. oystershell grit) as a calcium source when breeding.
  • Most species are ground nesters and both close ground cover and ground level nest boxes should be provided. Hand-rearing is generally preferred, as these ducks are generally poor parents in captive conditions, particularly in enclosures shared with other waterfowl. These ducks are prone to hybridization, particularly with closely related species, which should be kept apart from one another.

(B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, D1)

Species-specific information:

  • Mottled ducks (Florida ducks) are easy to manage and suitable for mixed collections; water, loafing areas and cover should all be provided.
  • These ducks breed regularly in captivity. Close natural cover and ground-level nest boxes should be provided for nesting; more open cover may also be used .
  • They should be kept separate from closely-related types (other mallard-type ducks) to avoid hybridisation.

(B29, B30, B94, B128.w2)

Aviornis UK Ringing Scheme recommended average ring size: L 11.0mm (D8).

Management Techniques

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 53-58cm, 21-23 inches (B25)
Adult weight General --
Male Average 1030g (B3); mean 2.6 lbs. (B8).
Female Average 968g (B3); mean 2.1 lbs. (B8).
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

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Head

Adult Bill Male Yellow, with black nostril, nail and band around base.
Variations (If present) Olive-yellow, duller, with dusky mottling and sometimes orange tinge.
Eyes (Iris) Male Brown.
Variations(If present) --
Juvenile Bill Yellow or olive-yellow.
Eyes (Iris) Brown.

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Legs

Adult Male Orange.
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Orange.

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Plumage

Adult Male Head and neck buff with fine dark streaking, crown, upper hindneck and eyestripe dusky. Body generally warm brown with heavy black spotting on breast, broader black subterminal markings on flanks.

Tertials dark brown with narrow paler edges, tail dark brown with paler edges and mottling. Wing dark brown, with tawny tips to greater coverts, secondaries metallic green-blue with black subterminal band, narrow white tips.

Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Duller, markings less distinct, upperparts darker.

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: Upperparts brown with yellow markings, underparts buff-yellow. Brown eyestripe and small ear spot.
Bill: Grey.
Feet: Grey.

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Reproduction

Reproductive Season

Time of year Nesting February to August, peak May to June.
No. of Clutches --

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Nest placement and structure

Nests on ground, hidden in vegetation, by or in marshes, often beneath palmetto palms.

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average --
Range 6-12 (B8)
Egg Description Creamy to greenish-white (B5, B8). Size: 57 x 34mm. (B5)

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Incubation

26-28 days (B8).

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Hatching

Synchronous.

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Fledging

50-60 days (B8).

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Sexual Maturity

Males One year old.
Females One year old.

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Adults Dabbles while wading and swimming, and up-ends.
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building Nest as pairs.
Incubation By female.
Newly-hatched By female.
Juveniles

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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Usually found as pairs, with small flocks during the moult.
Inter-specific --

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Sexual Behaviour

Pairs formed in early winter and remain together for most of the year, except in the moult after breeding.

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Predation in Wild

Racoons, opossums, skunks, grackles, snakes and dogs take eggs. Turtles, alligators, gar, other large fish and swarms of blue crabs all take ducklings.

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Activity Patterns

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Circadian --

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Natural Diet

Adults

Omnivorous, takes more animal food than Anas platyrhynchos - mallard.

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Newly-hatched

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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal

South-eastern and south-central North America. Texas and southern Louisiana, Florida peninsula north to Alachua County, inland north to south-eastern Colorado, western Kansas, Oklahoma and north-east Texas.

Some resident, others migrate to winter south to south-eastern Mexico.

Occasional and Accidental

Vagrants to Kansas, Colorado, inland west Texas.

Introduced

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Habitat

Coastal and lowland wetlands, marshes, wet grasslands and prairie ponds.

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Conservation

Intraspecific variation

A. f. fulvigula Florida mottled duck
A. f. maculosa Mottled Duck

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)

Not threatened, fairly numerous and widespread (B1).

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing --
Threats --

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Captive Populations

Not common in collections (B8).

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Trade

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