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< >  Anas gibberifrons - Sunda teal (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Indonesian grey teal - Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons
East Indian grey teal - Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons
Andaman grey teal - Anas gibberifrons albogularis
Andaman teal - Anas gibberifrons albogularis
Oceanic teal - Anas gibberifrons albogularis
Mangrove teal - Anas gibberifrons albogularis
Anas albogularis
- Andeman teal/ Andeman grey teal / Oceanic teal / Mangrove teal

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases


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Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B5, B8, B19, B25, B26, B44.9.w1.

Aviculture references:
B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B97, B128.w1, B139
D1, D8

Other References

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques


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Aviculture Information


General Information:
  • Dabbling Ducks are generally hardy, easy to maintain and easy to breed. Shelter may be required by some of the smaller species in winter. They should be provided with cover (including marginal pond cover) and loafing areas as well as water. A pen which is 50% water is suggested. The water may be shallow (i.e. no more than two feet deep is required), and muddy areas for dabbling in are also appreciated. These ducks are generally good in mixed collections, although the smaller and quieter species may be bullied. Territorial disputes between ducks of the same species may be avoided by keeping only one pair of each species in an enclosure, unless the area is very large. For a single pair of ducks a pen are of 50 to 100 square metres, depending on the size of duck, should be provided.
  • A diet based on wheat and pellets is suggested, with maintenance pellets changed to breeders pellets for the breeding season. Bread and greenfood are also appreciated. Grit should always be available, with soluble grit (e.g. oystershell grit) as a calcium source when breeding.
  • Most species are ground nesters and both close ground cover and ground level nest boxes should be provided. Hand-rearing is generally preferred, as these ducks are generally poor parents in captive conditions, particularly in enclosures shared with other waterfowl. These ducks are prone to hybridization, particularly with closely related species, which should be kept apart from one another.

(B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, B139, D1)

Species-specific information:

  • Sunda teal are quite hardy. They may be kept in mixed collection with other ducks in a large area, or in a separate pen. Grain and pellets should be supplemented with green food.
  • These ducks are rarely bred in captivity. Natural close ground cover, ground-level box or raised box may be used for nesting, with eggs laid April to May.
  • Hybridisation with Anas castanea - Chestnut teal is likely if they are kept in the same pen. is likely if they are kept in the same pen.

(B29, B30, B97).

Aviornis UK Ringing Scheme recommended average closed ring size: H 8.0mm, but Anas gibberifrons albogularis L 11.0mm (D8).

Management Techniques

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 16 inches, 40cm (B3).
Adult weight General Anas albogularis albogularis 15 ounces (B8).
Male Slightly smaller than average for Anas gracilis of 507g (B25), 1.1 lbs. (B8).
Female Slightly smaller than average for Anas gracilis of 474g (B3), 1.0 lbs. (B8).
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

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Adult Bill Male Blackish-grey (B3, B5, B25)
Variations (If present) --
Eyes (Iris) Male Bright crimson red (B3, B5, B8, B25)
Variations(If present) Red, less bright than in male (B3, B25)
Juvenile Bill Blackish-grey (B3, B5, B25).
Eyes (Iris) Red, less bright than adult males (B25).

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Adult Male Blackish-grey (B3, B5, B25, B26).
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Blackish-grey (B3, B5, B25).

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Adult Male Notable bulging forehead (Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons only).
Crown and hindneck
blackish-brown with paler speckling, sides of head, neck whitish with black speckling, chin and throat whitish, upperparts and underparts dark brown/black with russet-buff margins, tail, uppertail coverts and rump dark brown. Wings dark grey brown, primaries darker brown, greater coverts white-tipped, secondaries green-glossed black, white-tipped (B3, B5, B25, B26).
Variations (If present) Female:- Similar to male but paler (B3, B8, B25).

Sub-specific variation:- Anas gibberifrons albogularis has a white eye ring, usually a white patch around the eye (particularly in males) and sometimes an extensive white area on the head and neck. The forehead does not bulge forward. (B1, B3, B5, B8, B25, B26).

Juvenile Similar to adults but paler, particularly on head, with decreased contrast of darker crown (B3, B25, B26)

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: Upperparts dark brown, underparts white, face dull pink-buff, with two dark stripes (through eye and below) (B5). Anas gibberifrons albogularis face sometimes dark brown with small white stripes above and below eye (B5).
Bill: Blackish-grey (B5).
Feet: Blackish-grey (B5).

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Reproductive Season

Time of year  Associated with summer monsoon rains; July and August on Andeman (B3, B25).
No. of Clutches  --

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Nest placement and structure

In tree holes and on the ground particularly by streams; slight depression with vegetable material and considerable lining of down (B1, B5, B8).

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average --
Range 7-9 (B8); 10 on Andeman (B3).
Egg Description Cream or cream-white (B3, B8).

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24-26 days, possibly up to 31 days (B8); 24-25 days (B3); 24-26 days (B26); about 26 days (B1).

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46-66 days (B8); about 8 weeks (B1).

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Sexual Maturity

Males One year old (B1).
Females One year old (B1).

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Feeding Behaviour

Adults Dabble and mud-filter in shallows, up-end, also pick up seeds and insects and strip seeds from plants near water (B1, B3, B25, B26).
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building By female (B8).
Incubation By female (B3, B8).
Newly-hatched Tended by both parents (B3, B5, B8, B25).

Sometimes remain with parents for several weeks after fledging (B8).

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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Usually found in small flocks except in the breeding season (B5, B8, B25).
Inter-specific --

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Sexual Behaviour

Pair-forming behaviour is seen prior to breeding season,; pair bonds mainly durable and life-long (B3, B8).

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Predation in Wild


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Activity Patterns

Perch readily, on banks, branches over water logs, stumps and rocks; Anas gibberifrons albogularis roost in mangrove swamps or on rocks during the day (B5, B8).
Circadian Anas gibberifrons albogularis forage mainly at night, in freshwater pools and paddy fields (B5, B8).

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Natural Diet


Seeds and vegetative parts of aquatic and shoreline vegetation, grasses, sedges, also insects, insect larvae, molluscs, crustaceans (B1, B3, B26).

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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)


Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons: Indonesia - Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands eastward to Wetar Island and Timor Island. Generally fairly sedentary but some movement between islands (B1, B8, B19, B25).

Anas gibberifrons albogularis: Andaman, Coco, Great Coco, Landfall Islands, in Bay of Biscay. Wander through this archipelago (B1, B8, B19)

Occasional and Accidental --


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Mangrove swamps, coastal estuaries, tidal creeks, offshore islands, marshes and lakes (B5, B8, B19).

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Intraspecific variation

Sometimes considered conspecific with Anas gracilis - Grey Teal, with the various sub-species being named as Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons - East Indian grey teal, Indonesian grey teal or Sunda teal, Anas gibberifrons gracilis - Australian grey teal or Australasian grey teal, and Anas gibberifrons albogularis - Andaman grey teal or Andaman teal (B1, B3, B19, B25, B26).

Anas gibberifrons albogularis also sometimes given full species status, thus Anas albogularis - Andaman teal , and has even previously been divided into two sub-species Anas albogularis albogularis and Anas albogularis leucopareus, the later with more extensive white on its head; this division is no longer recognised as this feature is highly variable and may be related to the degree of inbreeding (B5, B8).

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -

Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons - East Indian Grey Teal is locally common and not endangered (B1, B8).

Anas gibberifrons albogularis - Andeman Grey Teal (Anas albogularis - Andaman Teal) however has declined from 'tens of thousands' to only a few hundred, and is highly endangered (B8, B44.9.w1).

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing --
Threats Habitat loss (wetland drainage; development for agriculture and residential use) and hunting pressure (B1, B8, B44.9.w1) threaten Anas gibberifrons albogularis. Destruction of coastal mangrove forests and hunting are also threats to Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons (B8).

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Captive Populations

Reasonable numbers of Anas gibberifrons gibberifrons in European, but not North American, collections. No collections presently (1996) holding Anas gibberifrons albogularis (B8).

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