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< >  Anas luzonica - Philippine duck (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Philippine mallard
Philippinente (German)
Canard de Philippines (French)
Anade Filipino (Spanish)
Pato de Filipinas (Spanish)
Anas superciliosa luzonica

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases


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Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B5, B8, B19, B25, B26.

Aviculture references:
B7, B29, B30, B31, B40, B94, B97, B128.w1
D1, D8

Other References

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques


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Aviculture Information


General Information:
  • Dabbling Ducks are generally hardy, easy to maintain and easy to breed. Shelter may be required by some of the smaller species in winter. They should be provided with cover (including marginal pond cover) and loafing areas as well as water. A pen which is 50% water is suggested. The water may be shallow (i.e. no more than two feet deep is required), and muddy areas for dabbling in are also appreciated. These ducks are generally good in mixed collections, although the smaller and quieter species may be bullied. Territorial disputes between ducks of the same species may be avoided by keeping only one pair of each species in an enclosure, unless the area is very large. For a single pair of ducks a pen are of 50 to 100 square metres, depending on the size of duck, should be provided.
  • A diet based on wheat and pellets is suggested, with maintenance pellets changed to breeders pellets for the breeding season. Bread and greenfood are also appreciated. Grit should always be available, with soluble grit (e.g. oystershell grit) as a calcium source when breeding.
  • Most species are ground nesters and both close ground cover and ground level nest boxes should be provided. Hand-rearing is generally preferred, as these ducks are generally poor parents in captive conditions, particularly in enclosures shared with other waterfowl. These ducks are prone to hybridization, particularly with closely related species, which should be kept apart from one another.

(B7, B29, B30, B40, B94, B128.w1, D1)

Species-specific information:

  • Philippine ducks are fairly winter-hardy and easy to manage. The enclosure should provide water, loafing areas and cover. They are suitable for mixed collections, although there may be problems with drake Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard attempting to pair with ducks. Feed as other dabbling-ducks, with grain and pellets.
  • These ducks are easily bred. They may nest in natural close ground cover, ground level or raised nest box, shelters or baskets, eggs laid from mid-May onwards in Europe, sometimes from as early as mid-April (B31), from April to June (B29). The ducklings are straightforward to rear. A duck may rear two broods in one season; starter crumbs supplemented with duckweed and finely chopped grass suggested.
  • Prone to hybridisation within the '"mallard" group; hybrids reported with Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard and Anas superciliosa - Pacific black duck.

(B29, B30, B31, B94, B97)

Aviornis UK Ringing Scheme recommended average closed ring size: L 11.0mm (D8).

Management Techniques

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 19-23 inches, 48-58cm (B3, B1)
Adult weight General 725-977g (B1)
Male 803-977g, average 906g (B3); mean 2.0 lbs. (B8).
Female 725-818g, average 779g (B3); mean 2.0 lbs. (B8).
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

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Adult Bill Male Blue-grey with black nail.
Variations (If present) --
Eyes (Iris) Male Brown.
Variations(If present) --
Juvenile Bill Blue-grey with black nail.
Eyes (Iris) Brown.

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Adult Male Brownish-grey.
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Brownish-grey.

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Adult Male Head and neck bright rusty cinnamon with blackish crown and hindneck, and broad blackish eye-stripe, narrowing behind eye. Breast pale buff-grey, underparts plain grey, upperparts slightly darker grey. Wing brown-grey, secondaries green with black bases and white tips, white tips to greater coverts (speculum green with black and white borders).
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Head and neck paler, duller, speculum duller.

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: upperparts blackish olive, underparts yellow; broad black eye-stripe.
Bill: Grey.
Feet: Grey.

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Reproductive Season

Time of year Season prolonged: ducklings recorded March, April, May, September, December on Mindoro.
No. of Clutches --

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Nest placement and structure

On the ground in vegetation

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average 10 (B1, B8).
Range 814 (B1, B8).
Egg Description Pale green. Size: 54 x 41mm, weight: 51g (B3).

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25-26 days (B1); 25-28 days (B8).

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About 8 weeks (B1); 50-60 days (B8).

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Sexual Maturity

Males Presumed Anas standard: one year old.
Females Presumed Anas standard: one year old.

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Feeding Behaviour

Adults Dabbles and up-ends in shallow water.
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building By female only.
Incubation By female only.
Newly-hatched Presumed Anas standard: by female only.


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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Usually found as pairs or in small groups, but sometimes in larger flocks of 100-200 birds.
Inter-specific --

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Sexual Behaviour

Pair-bonds may be strong longer lasting rather than seasonal.

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Predation in Wild


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Activity Patterns

Circadian --

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Natural Diet



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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)


Philippine Islands: Luzon, Masbate, Mindoro, Mindanao.

Sedentary; local movements only.

Occasional and Accidental




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Various wetlands from mountain lakes to marshes, small pools, rivers, tidal creeks, coastal waters.

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Intraspecific variation


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Conservation Status

Wild Population -

Loose estimate of 10,000-100,000 birds in the wild. Vulnerable (B1, B44.9.w1).

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing Lower risk . near-threatened (W2).
Threats Habitat loss and hunting (B1, B44.9.w1).

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Captive Populations

Common in collections (B8).

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