Fulmarus glacialus - Northern fulmar:

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Summary Information
Living Organisms / Animalia / Craniata / Aves / Ciconiiformes / Procellariidae / Fulmarus / Species

This section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. Although it identifies that taxonomic interrelationships of species (see "header") it does not currently contain detailed information on the bird species itself. As Wildpro is developed, we will gradually convert these pages into full Species pages.

The taxonomy of birds is still under review and the A World Checklist of Birds by Burt L. Monroe, Jr and Charles G. Sibley (B89) has been chosen as the primary reference. The taxonomic structure will be amended when new editions or complete references are identified by the scientific world as the recognized primary references for taxonomy.

Alternative Names
Distribution General Range: Northern Holarctic; winters to northern oceans. (B89)
  • London: In the London Area, a "rare visitor" with 30 records for London to 2000. (J322.65.w1)
Habitat Breeding - Near sea, using cliffs; also inland on cliffs "up to 1000m above sea level" (B163)
Further Information Feeding:
  • food - mainly aquatic invertebrates (crustaceans, squid); also fish and carrion (fish offal from boats)
  • feeding behaviour - mainly surface dips to seize prey; also dives
  • feeding nestlings - this species is within the family of "tube-noses": adults often feed distant from nest, ingest oily prey and regurgitate a mix of oil and partly digested flesh to feed young 


  • location and structure - scrape on cliffs and sometimes banks
  • nest building - little material required
  • breeding structure - monogamous


  • markings - not patterned
  • number of eggs - 1 (2)
  • broods - one brood per season
  • incubation - by male and female alternating every 3-4 days (1st shift female for one day, 2nd shift male for 7 days); 52-53 days


  • development - Semi-altricial; downy; eyes open at hatching
  • parental caring for young - by male and female
  • fledging - 41-57 days

(B163, B164)

Organisations (UK Contacts):

Electronic Library (further reading):

General Legislation:

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Individual techniques:

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