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< > Grus nigricollis - Black-necked crane (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)

Grus nigricollis - Black-necked crane pair. Click here for full-page view with caption. Grus nigricollis - Black-necked crane chick. Click here for full-page view with caption. Grus nigricollis - Black-necked crane adult. Click here for full-page view with caption. Grus nigricollis - Black-necked crane chick. Click here for full-page view with caption. Grus nigricollis - Black-necked crane chicks. Click here for full-page view with caption. Black-necked crane. Click here for full-page view with caption. Black-necked crane. Click here for full-page view with caption. Black-necked crane distribution map. Click here for full-page view with caption.










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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • de zwarthals Kraanvogel (Dutch) (B474)
  • la grue de Prjevalsky (French) (B474)
  • der schwarzhals Kranich (German) (B474)
  • Grue cou noir. (French) (B107.w8, W2.Dec06.w7)
  • Schwarzhalskranich. (German)(B107.w8)
  • Guella Cuellinegra (Spanish). (B107.w8, W2.Dec06.w7)

Names for newly-hatched


Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases


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Species Author

Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)

Major References

B97, B107.w8, B475, B480.2.w2, B481.II.13.w21, J721.33.w1, P91.1.w6, W2.Nov2014.w12

Aviculture references:
(B115.2.w7, B481.II.13.w21, D437, J23.17.w5, P1.1986.w4, P96.1.w1)


(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

  • --

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Aviculture Information


General Information:
  • Cranes are tall birds with a long beak and sharp claws, and can be aggressive. Their ability to injure humans must be considered in enclosure design and handling. (B115.2.w7, B197.9.w9)
  • Most cranes are wetland species, a few being primarily grassland species. They should be given the opportunity to wade and bathe, and to forage and/or dig for food in natural vegetation and soft soil substrates.
  • Good nutrition, with adequate protein and micronutrient levels, is essential for the general health of the cranes and for breeding.
  • Cranes form monogamous pairs and can be extremely territorial, particularly in the breeding season. Therefore it is important to house each pair of adult cranes in a separate enclosure from other cranes, and preferably not directly adjacent to another pair of cranes, particularly of the same species. Visual barriers should be put in place between crane enclosures before the breeding season
  • Care is required when introducing intended mates to each other, to avoid injury to one or both birds; formation of a good pair bond can take time.
  • Cranes are unlikely to breed if they feel insecure, such as in mixed species enclosures with hoofstock, or if there is no part of their enclosure which is free from daily human disturbance.
  • If possible, rotational pens should be provided, such that a pen can be left empty in alternate years, to reduce soil burdens of parasites and pathogenic microorganisms which may otherwise build up to problematic levels; this is particularly important if chicks are to be parent-reared, to avoid overwhelming exposure to e.g. gapeworm very early.

(B115.2.w7, D437, J23.17.w5, P1.1986.w4, P96.1.w1)

Species-specific information:

  • Chicks in the first days will fight each other and hand-reared chicks need to be kept separated from each other. (B481.II.13.w21)
Management Techniques


Bird Husbandry and Management

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Height About 115 cm. (B107.w8); 139 cm. (B475) Wingspan 180-200 cm. (B107.w8)
Adult weight General 5,000-7,000 g. (B107.w8)
Male --
Female --
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate
  • Increasing body weight for the first 180 days, peaking at about 6.750g, then declining to stabilise at 5,500 days. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Cranes general: Crane chicks grow rapidly. Growth of the legs is particularly rapid in the first six weeks, with the wings then developing rapidly after this. (B107.w8)

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Adult Bill Male Greenish horn to greyish horn, with tip yellow. (B481.II.13.w21) Greenish. (B97)
Variations (If present) Female: --
Eyes (Iris) Male Yellow. (B107.w8, B481.II.13.w21)
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Bill At hatching, flesh red with a whitish tip. (B481.II.13.w21)
Eyes (Iris) By eight months, yellow-brown. (B481.II.13.w21)

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Adult Male Grey. (B107.w8) Black. (B97, B481.II.13.w21)
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile At hatching, feet reddish with a touch of grey; by four weeks toes greyish-brown. (B481.II.13.w21)

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Adult Male
  • Grey; head and neck black, except for crown small areas of red, small spot behind eye white. Elongated secondaries black, form a black "tail" or "bustle" when the wings are folded. (B107.w8)
  • Whitish-grey. Head and upper neck black, except crown patch red and postocular patch (small) whitish. Primaries black, secondaries black. (B475)
Variations (If present)
Juvenile Greyish yellow; neck mixed black and white. (B107.w8)

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Identification Notes

Cranes general: 
  • "Cranes are large to very large birds with long necks and legs, streamlined bodies and long, rounded wings." (B107.w8)
  • Compared to the day-herons, cranes have longer legs and hold their necks straighter. (B107.w8)
  • Compared to egrets, the body is proportionately larger. (B107.w8)
  • Compared to storks, the legs are longer, bodies lighter and bills smaller. (B107.w8)
  • In flight, cranes have their necks straight forwards and their long legs trailing behind, forming a straight line from the bill; in very cold weather the legs may be pulled in against the body. (B107.w8)

Black-necked crane:

  • "The only grey crane with black primaries and secondaries; black neck and tail distinctive." (B107.w8)
  • The inner secondaries are elongated and form a distinct "bustle" when the wings are folded. (B107.w8)
  • Large, whitish-grey crane with head and upper neck black except for a red crown patch and a small whitish postocular patch. Both the primaries and secondaries are black. (B475


  • Penetrating, high-pitched calls. (B107.w8, B475)

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

  • Precocial. (B107.w8) Standing and moving about close to the nest on the second day, eating and being led around near the nest by the third day. May be led to a richer feeding area by about 10 days of age, or sooner id the cranes are disturbed. (B481.II.13.w21)
    • Chicks can be aggressive to each other. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Brown. (B107.w8) Initially brownish; by 20 days, head and tail becoming darker and by four weeks the top of the head is pale yellow. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Cranes general: The initial down is replaced by a second coat of down; this is replaced by feathers. (B107.w8)

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Detailed Anatomy

  • The trachea is coiled and fills the sternum. (B107.w8, B481.II.13.w21)
  • Cranes have ten functional primary flight feathers (with a vestigial 11th in most species), and 18-25 secondary flight feathers. (B107.w8)

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Reproductive Season

Time of year Spring. Eggs are laid early May to mid-June. (B107.w8)
No. of Clutches --

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Nest placement and structure

  • On small grassy islands or water of shallow peat wetlands, the nest is constructed from sedges, grasses, other aquatic vegetation and mud. (B107.w8)
  • Preferable in about 30 cm of water, at large water bodies. (W2.Nov2014.w12)
  • Sometimes, on muddy or grassy islands in a lake, just piled up mud, sometimes dead grass,. Also in shallow marsh or lake borders, large piles of vegetation such as rushes and dry grasses, 61 - 91 cm across. (B480.2.w2)
  • Very variable: large piles of vegetation in marshy pools or on the border of marshes, or small nests on an island with little vegetation. (B481.II.13.w21)

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average Usually two. (B107.w8) Average 1.7 for 10 nests. (B481.II.13.w21)
Range One or two. (B480.2.w2)
Egg Description
  • Greyish-green with dense spotting, 99 x 63 mm, 237 g. (P91.1.w6)
  • Olive brown, dark olive or purplish brown, with dark brown or purple-grey or reddish-grey blotches/markings. One 99.0 x 63.o mm, another 106.0 x 62.5 mm; 23 eggs averaged 102.6 x 62.8 mm. (B480.2.w2)

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  • 31-33 days. (B107.w8, B481.II.13.w21)
  • Incubation begins after the first egg has been laid. (B107.w8, B481.II.13.w21)
  • Egg laying interval 1-3 days. (B481.II.13.w21)

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Asynchronous. (B107.w8)

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About 90 days. (B107.w8); flight feathers fully grown by 90 days, fledging probably earlier. (B481.II.13.w21)

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Sexual Maturity

Males --
Females --

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Feeding Behaviour

  • Forage in wetlands, streams and pastures in the breeding areas, and in winter forage on agricultural fields and pastures. (B107.w8)
  • Graze in a manner similar to geese. (B107.w8)
  • Take food from vegetation and from the ground, dig the soil with their claws to search for food. Much of the available food for wintering black-necked cranes is within the top 10 cm of soil rather than on the surface. (J721.33.w1)
Newly-hatched --

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Parental Behaviour

  • Cranes general: Both male and female build the nest. (B107.w8)
  • Cranes general: A secluded spot in the pair's territory is chosen, and the cranes unison-call there, then walk away from the selected place and toss nesting materials over their shoulders towards it. Returning to the nest site, they pull into the nest material which is within reach, then slowly walk away and toss more material towards the nest, repeating this sequence until sufficient nesting material has been gathered. (B107.w8)
  • Incubated by both parents. In the absence of predators, the eggs may be left for as long as half an hour at a time. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Cranes general: 
    • Both male and female incubate, changing over several times during the day, but with the female usually incubating during the night. (B107.w8)
    • About every 30-80 minutes, the bird which is incubating will rise and roll the eggs or adjust the nest. (B107.w8)
  • Feed the chick, placing food in front of it. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Cranes general: Adult cranes feed their chicks from soon after hatching. Both male and female bring small items to the chicks, presenting them by holding the food item at the tip of the bill or dropping the food in front of the chicks. (B107.w8)
  • Families stay together through the winter, feeding together. (B480.2.w2, B481.II.13.w21)

  • Cranes general: Adult cranes continue to care for their chicks throughout the pre-fledging period and may bring food to the chick for several months (although chicks also follow their parents to food sources from an early age). Juveniles remain with their parents through the non-breeding periods but leave at the start of the next breeding season or are driven away after the return to the breeding territory. (B107.w8)

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Social Behaviour

  • Cranes general: 
    • Cranes are gregarious outside the breeding season, but separate for the breeding season. (B107.w8)
    • Juveniles which are not yet paired gather in non-breeding flocks and may be nomadic through the breeding period. (B107.w8)
    • By the end of their second year the young birds may have started to initiate pair bonds. (B107.w8)
    • Soon after the chicks fledge, families of migratory cranes gather in flocks at pre-migratory staging areas with dependable food and safe roosting sites. As the weather deteriorates, they move further south to join larger congregations of cranes, before setting out on the main migration. (B107.w8)

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Sexual Behaviour

  • An observed mating involved the female making a low call, both birds carrying out a dance with the wings outstretched and the bills and necks upwards, after which the female was mounted by the male; during copulation of up to 20 seconds the male flapped his wings; the male then jumped off and the birds called. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Cranes general: Monogamous. Crane pairs stay together all year, and usually remain together until one partner dies. (B107.w8)
  • Cranes general: (B107.w8)
    • Cranes copulate repeatedly, starting several weeks before egg laying.
    • Mating usually occurs before sunrise, but can also occur at other times during daylight hours. 
    • In newly-established pairs, copulation is preceded by long bouts of dancing. Well-established pairs mate without any tension. 
    • The copulatory sequence is initiated by the male or the female. The initiating bird elevates its bill, arches slightly forwards and gives a low, purring call. The mate then shows similar behaviour. 
    • The male bird (usually) circles its mate with exaggerated steps.
    • The female spreads her wings. The male approaches, jumps onto her back with his wings flapping, and crouches.
    • The female elevates her tail, the male lowers his tail, and the cloacae of the two birds meet.
    • The male jumps forward off the female over her head and for a few seconds performs threat displays.
    • Both birds perform a long preening sequence.


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Predation in Wild

Predators include common leopards, leopard cats, Asiatic golden cats and yellow-throated martens. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

In the Chinghai area of China, possibly Buteo bueo and Aquila rapax- Tawny eagle. (B481.II.13.w21)

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Activity Patterns

Cranes general:
  • Roosting:
    • Cranes (except the Balearica spp.) generally roost in shallow water, occasionally on mudflats, sandbars or dry ground.
    • In flocks, cranes stand about a "peck distance" apart while roosting.
    • Most of the time they stand on one leg, switching legs several times during the night.
    • The head and neck are tucked onto or under one shoulder.
    • Cranes defecate at regular intervals while roosting.
    • On the roosting site they are still and silent unless disturbed.
    • If there is an unfamiliar sound, or one member of the flock gives an alarm call, all the birds become alert and are ready to fly.


  • At dawn, they wake, stretch, preen and drink.
  • In small groups, they fly to a post-roosting staging area, and preen more; cranes may gather at such a site from several roost sites.
  • Small and then larger groups move from the staging area to a feeding area for the day.
  • Generally, cranes feed for a long time in the early morning, then move to loafing areas.
    • At loafing areas, cranes preen and drink, and also engage in social displays, establishing a pecking order for families, and facilitating pairing of unattached birds.
  • In the middle of very hot days, they may fly, spirally high up on thermals.
  • Later they return to feeding and watering areas and forage.
  • They then move to pre-roosting staging areas before flying to a roost site.
    • On the pre-roost staging areas they may engage in social displays.


  • Cranes general: Diurnal. Outside the breeding season, cranes roost at night and feed during the day. (B107.w8)

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Natural Diet

Adult Diet

  • Omnivorous. (B107.w8)
    • Plant roots and tubers, snails, shrimps, fish, frogs, lizards, voles. (B107.w8)
    • In wintering areas, waste barley, spring wheat etc., plus tubers, seeds, earthworms, insect, snails. (B107.w8)
    • Roots and tubers, invertebrates (insects, snails, shrimp), fish, small birds, rodents. (W2.Nov2014.w12)
    • Roots and tubers, including potatoes, turnips and wild radishes, seeds, fruits and invertebrates. (J721.33.w1)

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Newly-hatched Diet


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Detailed Physiology Notes


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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)


Black-necked crane distribution map. Click here for full-page view with caption.

  • North-west India (eastern Ladakh) through Tibet to Xinjiang, Quinghai, Gansu and Sichuan in western and central China. (B107.w8)

  • Qinghai-Tibetan plateau in China and (small population) in the adjacent Ladakh, India.

  • Bhutan, China, India, Viet Nam. (W2.Dec06.w7)


  • Winters from the southern Tibet Plateau, Bhutan and north-east India (north-west Arunachal Pradesh) eastwards to Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in south-central China. (B107.w8)

  • Movements are fairly limited, from the high altitude breeding grounds to lower altitude agricultural valleys in south-central and eastern Tibet,, central and northeastern Bhutan, northwest Arunachal Pradesh, northwest and north east Yunnan and west Guizhou. (B107.w8)

  • Formerly also northern Myanmar and northern Vietnam. (B107.w8)

  • Arrive on the wintering grounds mid-October to early December and stay until March or mid-April. (B107.w8)

  • Six identified wintering areas at lower altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau in China: 1,300-1,600 bids in north-east Yunnan and western Guizhoi, up to 100 in north-west Yunnan, 3,900 in south-central Tibet, up to 20 in eastern Tibet, also 360 in Bhutan, about ten in Arunachal Pradesh (India) and (formerly at least) also in Vietnam. (B475)

  • Cranes general: 
    • Migratory cranes spend days to weeks at pre-migratory staging areas, integrating into the flock as well as building up fat reserves. (B107.w8)
    • To migrate, they feed for several hours early in the morning, then on a clear day with breezes, fly up, climbing in large circles by flap-flying and lifting on thermals, to as high as 2,00m, then assume a V-formation, wings extended, and glide south; after a certain amount of altitude has been lost, they spiral again to regain height, before gliding. Over water, without thermals, they flap-fly in V-formation. (B107.w8)
    • Young cranes stay close to their parents during migration and learn the route. (B107.w8)
    • Cranes call constantly during migration. (B107.w8)
Occasional and Accidental

Vagrant to Nepal. (B107.w8, W2.Dec06.w7)



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Wetlands, including artificial wetlands. Foothills and montane areas. (B475)
  • Summer:
    • 2,950-4,900 m altitude, in grassy wetlands, boggy meadows, lakeside and streamside marshes, and pastures, often close to human settlements. (B107.w8) 3,962 - 4,571 m (13,000 -15,000 feet. (B481.II.13.w21)
    • Alpine bog meadows and riverine marshes; lacustrine marshes at 2,600-4,900 m are preferred. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12) Marshes and bogs around the margins of, and on islands in, Tibetan steppe lakes. (B481.II.13.w21)
  • Winter:
    • Lower altitudes, down to 1,375 m, typically open agricultural lands such as deserted paddy fields. (B107.w8)
    • River valleys and shorelines of reservoirs near fields of barley and spring wheat. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)
    • At the Napahai Wetland, China, black-necked cranes were found to use shallow marsh (preferred) and wet meadows for foraging, while farmland and dry grassland were avoided. (J48.81.w1)
      • At some wintering sites, farmlands are used more, possible related to lake of wetland habitats and availability of waste grain and potatoes on farmlands. (J48.81.w1)

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Intraspecific variation

Monotypic. (B107.w8)

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
  • Vulnerable. (B107.w8)

  • Population estimate 5,600-6,000 individuals. (B107.w8)

  • Declines in several areas since the 1950s, and documented declines in several wintering sub-populations since the 1970s. (B107.w8)

  • Population estimated at 5,600-6,00 and declining. (B475)

  • Population estimated at about 10,070 - 10,970 individuals with about 6,000 of those mature individuals, and generally declining, but with some indication of an increase in recent years. (W2.Nov2014.w12)


  • Habitat loss and degradation, particularly in wintering areas but also some breeding areas: wetland drainage and conversion, river canalization, hydroelectric projects, overgrazing, peat mining, siltation, industrial pollution. (B107.w8)

    • Most of the cranes crowd into the few protected areas in winter; several wintering wetlands have been lost. (J721.33.w1)

  • In Tibet, reduced winter food availability due to changes in agricultural practice such as autumn ploughing (so grain not available as it was when ploughing was carried out in spring) and use of winter wheat varieties rather than traditional crops. (B107.w8, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Hunting, despite local traditions and legal protection. (B107.w8)

  • Degradation of grasslands in the breeding grounds, Zoige , China, due to intensive grazing and use of pesticides. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Some breeding grounds affected by development and agriculture resulting in drying of marshes and desertification. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • In Tibet, planting of high-yield winter wheat rather than traditional crops; fields are ploughed in autumn rather than spring, which reduces grain availability on cultivated land in winter. (B475)

  • In Bhutan, wetland drainage and mechanisation of farming. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

    • Also grazing, hunting, stray dogs. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Wintering birds are threatened by a planned dam on the Lhasa River. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • In Qinghai, Sichuan and Yunnan, China, disturbance and habitat degradation have increased due to fish farming, peat collection, firewood collection, river channelisation, industrial pollution and sedimentation, and road and fence construction. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Use of traditional stopover sites as camping grounds by local herders. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • At Dashanbao National Nature Reserve, ironically work to convert farmland back to grassland and woodland appears to be detrimental to the cranes, which prefer the farmland. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • In parts of China and India, egg collection and poaching. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Power line strikes, although this is not [yet] a major factor. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Climate change appears to be reducing breeding habitat (wetlands at high altitudes) with several lakes drying up or diminished; this trend is set to continue. (W2.Nov2014.w12)


  • In many areas, protected by religious traditions. (B107.w8)

  • Field studies. (B107.w8)

  • Establishment of protection for wintering areas in Tibet, Bhutan, Yunnan and Guizhou. (B107.w8)

  • At Cao Hai Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, China, habitat protection and management, community development and watershed planning. (B107.w8)

  • National and international conservation organisations working with governments to support and coordinate surveys, research, habitat management education and training programmes. (B107.w8)

  • Major breeding and wintering areas in China are protected. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Conservation and development programmes in local communities at Cao Hai and Dashanbao (important sites). (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • The breeding population in India is in the Changthang Cold Desert Wildlife Sanctuary. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Reduced shooting of cranes (and other wildlife) due to firearms control, improved awareness and increased enforcement of wildlife protection laws. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Tibetans consider the black-necked crane to be a "divine bird" which should not be molested by anyone. (P109.7.w8)

  • In Bhutan, an annual census of the wintering population and associated festival raising public awareness. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Annual counts at Dashanbao, Cao Hai and Napahai. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Studies of winter ecology and migration. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • In Bumdeling, Bhutan, banning of winter cropping, to ensure food for the wintering cranes. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

Further conservation targets:

  • Continue studies of the black-necked crane's migration. (B475, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Establish a protected area at Lashi Hai in China. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7)

  • Designate the breeding areas in Ladakh, India, as waterbird sanctuaries. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • At the Zoige marshes, China, stop marsh drainage and the use of pesticides and rodenticides. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7)

  • At Ruoergai marshes, China, stop drainage of marshes, and the use of pesticides and rodenticides, control meadow livestock May-August (key feeding period) and establish protected buffer zones round breeding swamps and lakes. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • At Cao Hai, China, maintain the water levels of the wetlands and prohibit encroachment. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7), W2.Nov2014.w12

  • In the wintering grounds, leave some fields unploughed November to March. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Where stopover sites have been identified outside the protected areas, include at least some into nature reserves, particularly where local herders are likely to disturb the sites. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Monitor the cranes along migration routes. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • At Napahai (China), restrict livestock, maintain a network of framed areas as wetlands. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • In Bhutan, prohibit expansion of settlements into important crane habitats. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • In important areas, subsidise farmers to promote farming management which is good for the cranes. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Regulate tourist access to the cranes and plan tourism/ecotourism carefully. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Education programmes for policy makers, teachers, students and the general public. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • An action plan for black-necked cranes. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Monitor the impact of climate change on breeding habitats. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

  • Develop a network in China to improve monitoring and education. (W2.Nov2014.w12)

General Legislation
  • Legally completely protected throughout range. (B107.w8)
  • These cranes are legally protected in China, India and Bhutan. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)
CITES listing
  • CITES I (B107.w8)
  • CITES Appendix I and II. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)
  • CMS Appendix I and II. (B475, W2.Dec06.w7, W2.Nov2014.w12)
Red-data book listing
  • Vulnerable C2a(ii) ver 3.1 (assessed 2012). (W2.Nov2014.w12)
    • Previously assessed as Vulnerable in 1994, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009. (W2.Nov2014.w12)
  • Vulnerable (assessed 2006) (VU C2a(ii) ver 3.1 (2001)) "This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small population, in one subpopulation, that is undergoing a continuing decline, primarily as a result of loss and degradation of wetlands and changing agricultural practices in both its breeding and wintering grounds." (W2.Dec06.w7)

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Captive Populations


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