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< > Grus paradisea - Blue crane (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)

Blue crane - Grus (Anthropoides) paradisea. Click here for full-page view with caption. Blue crane - Grus (Anthropoides) paradisea. Click here for full-page view with caption. Blue crane - Grus (Anthropoides) paradisea. Click here for full-page view with caption. Blue crane - Grus (Anthropoides) paradisea. Click here for full-page view with caption. Blue crane - Grus (Anthropoides) paradisea. Click here for full-page view with caption. Blue cranes - Grus paradisea. Click here for full-page view with caption. Wings of blue crane. Click here for full-page view with caption. Blue crane distribution map. Click here for full-page view with caption.

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE & ANATOMY

REPRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR

NATURAL DIET & PHYSIOLOGY

RANGE & HABITAT

CONSERVATION

 

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Anthropoides paradisea
  • Paradise crane
  • Stanley crane
  • Grue bleue (F) (W2.Dec06.w8)
  • Grue de paradis (French) (B107.w8, W2.Dec06.w8)
  • Paradieskranich (German)
  • Gruella azul (S) (W2.Dec06.w8)
  • Gruella del Paraiso (Spanish) (B107.w8, W2.Dec06.w8)
  • Ardea paradisea (B474, B483)
  • Tetrapteryx stanlyanus (B474)
  • Tetrapterix capensis (B483.w3)
  • Anthropoides stanleyanus (B474, B483)
  • Grus stanleyana (B474)
  • Grus capensis (B474, B483.w3)
  • Scops paradisea (B474)
  • Scops paradiseus (B483.w3)
  • Tetrapteryx paradisea (B474)
  • Geranus paradisea (B474)
  • Geranus paradiseaus (B483.w3)
  • Grus caffra (B474)
  • de Paradijskraan (Dutch) (B474)
  • la Grue de Paradis (French) (B474)
  • der Paradies Kranich (German) (B474)
  • Great Locust bird (Cape)
  • Groote Sprinkhaanvogel (Boers, Transvaal) (B474)

Names for newly-hatched

Chick

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases

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References

Species Author

Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)

Major References

B107.w8, B475, B480.13.w13, B481.II.2.w10, B483.w3, W2.Nov2013.w3

Aviculture references:
B31, B115.2.w7, B479.w16, D437, J23.17.w5, N1.V.1.w1, N1.73.w2, P1.1986.w4, P96.1.w1

ORGANISATIONS

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Aviculture Information

Notes

General Information:
  • Cranes are tall birds with a long beak and sharp claws, and can be aggressive. Their ability to injure humans must be considered in enclosure design and handling. (B115.2.w7, B197.9.w9)
  • Most cranes are wetland species, a few being primarily grassland species. They should be given the opportunity to wade and bathe, and to forage and/or dig for food in natural vegetation and soft soil substrates.
  • Good nutrition, with adequate protein and micronutrient levels, is essential for the general health of the cranes and for breeding.
  • Cranes form monogamous pairs and can be extremely territorial, particularly in the breeding season. Therefore it is important to house each pair of adult cranes in a separate enclosure from other cranes, and preferably not directly adjacent to another pair of cranes, particularly of the same species. Visual barriers should be put in place between crane enclosures before the breeding season
  • Care is required when introducing intended mates to each other, to avoid injury to one or both birds; formation of a good pair bond can take time.
  • Cranes are unlikely to breed if they feel insecure, such as in mixed species enclosures with hoofstock, or if there is no part of their enclosure which is free from daily human disturbance.
  • If possible, rotational pens should be provided, such that a pen can be left empty in alternate years, to reduce soil burdens of parasites and pathogenic microorganisms which may otherwise build up to problematic levels; this is particularly important if chicks are to be parent-reared, to avoid overwhelming exposure to e.g. gapeworm very early.

(B115.2.w7, D437, J23.17.w5, P1.1986.w4, P96.1.w1)

Species-specific information:

  • Does not do well in cold damp weather; better in cold dry weather. (B479.w16)
  • Need warmth in winter. (B31)
  • Can be kept in large fenced gardens or park areas. (B31)
  • Require a separate enclosure for breeding. (B31)
  • May chase and bully more timid birds. (B479.w16)
  • Parents are very aggressive, including to humans, while rearing chicks. (N1.V.1.w1)
  • When attacking seriously, they leap into the air and strike with feet and bill. (B479.w16)
    • While individuals have been kept as tame pets, they can be dangerous to children; they may peck at their eyes. (B97)
    • Apparently tame birds may still suddenly stab with the bill, aiming accurately for the eyes. (B31)
  • Were noted to spend a lot of time wading, but did not roost in the water. (N1.73.w2)
  • Swims well if provided with deep water, holding the tips of the wings up. (B479.w16)
  • Chicks are aggressive and need to be kept individually during hand-rearing. (B31, N1.73.w2)
  • In an early report, chicks were parent-reared parents in pens in an orchard, with ant's eggs, maggots ("gentles"), earthworms and prepared food (mash) provided. Chicks being reared in a very large pen died by two weeks of age, possibly due to inadequate natural food and difficulty in getting supplementary food to the chicks. (N1.V.1.w1)
Management Techniques

 

Bird Husbandry and Management

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External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Height
  • 110-120 cm; wingspan 180-200 cm; the male is generally larger than the female. (B107.w8)
  • 100 cm. (B475)
  • About four and a half feet; the male is larger than the female. (B483.w3)
Adult weight General 4,900-5,300 g. (B107.w8)
Male 5,675 g (one individual). (B481.II.2.w10)
Female 3,632 g one individual). (B481.II.2.w10)
Newly-hatched weight 125 g (three chicks). (B31)
Growth rate Cranes general: Crane chicks grow rapidly. Growth of the legs is particularly rapid in the first six weeks, with the wings then developing rapidly after this. (B107.w8)

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Head

Adult Bill Male
  • Pink. (B107.w8) Flesh-coloured. (B97)
  • Short. (B107.w8)
Variations (If present) Female: --
Eyes (Iris) Male
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Bill --
Eyes (Iris) --

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Legs

Adult Male
  • Grey. Toes are short. (B107.w8)
  • Black. (B97, B483.w3)
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile In chicks, blueish-gret. (B481.II.2.w10)

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Plumage

Adult Male
  • Uniform bluish-grey on the head, neck and body; crown white. (B107.w8)
  • Secondaries, which are elongated, are black-tipped. (B107.w8)
  • Pale blue. (B475)
  • Soft leaden blue. upper part of the head white, ends of tertiaries black. The elongated tertiaries reach to the ground. (B483.w3)
Variations (If present)
--
Juvenile Paler grey generally, and the secondaries are not elongated (therefore no "tail"). (B107.w8); also the top of the head is somewhat tawny. (B481.II.2.w10)

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Identification Notes

Cranes general: 
  • "Cranes are large to very large birds with long necks and legs, streamlined bodies and long, rounded wings." (B107.w8)
  • Compared to the day-herons, cranes have longer legs and hold their necks straighter. (B107.w8)
  • Compared to egrets, the body is proportionately larger. (B107.w8)
  • Compared to storks, the legs are longer, bodies lighter and bills smaller. (B107.w8)
  • In flight, cranes have their necks straight forwards and their long legs trailing behind, forming a straight line from the bill; in very cold weather the legs may be pulled in against the body. (B107.w8)

Blue crane specific:

  • Of all the cranes, the head is completely feathered in the adults of only the blue crane and Grus virgo - Demoiselle crane. (B107.w8)
  • Relatively small (for a crane), with a large head and thin neck. At a distance, appears greyish with a long, decurved "tail" (actually very long tertials). (B475)
  • The inner secondaries, which are black-tipped, are elongated and form a prominent "tail" when the wings are folded. (B107.w8)
  • The feathers of the cheek and upper nape are loose and form a distinctive "cobra" shape. (B107.w8)
  • Distinguished from immature Grus carunculatus - Wattled crane by the fact that it is much smaller, and lacks white on the breast and neck. (B475)
  • Sometimes found in large flocks on open pastures in the south Western Cape wheatlands and the foothills of the Drakensberg in South Africa. (B475)

Voice:

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Newly-hatched Characteristics

  • Grey, with head and neck yellowish and lower throat and breast white. (B107.w8)
  • Active within hours of hatching; remain in or by the nest for the first day and start walking with their parents on the second day. (B481.II.2.w10)
  • Cranes general: The initial down is replaced by a second coat of down; this is replaced by feathers. (B107.w8)

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Detailed Anatomy

  • The trachea makes only a slight indentation on the sternum. (B107.w8) Trachea does not penetrate the sternum. (B481.II.2.w10)
  • "The trachea, quitting the direction of the vertebrae of the neck at the lower part, passes downwards and backwards between the branches of the furcula till it reaches the anterior edge of the keel; it then turns upwards into a groove formed for its reception, and, being reflected forwards and downwards, traverses the projecting part of the sternum, and passes backwards to the lungs." (B483.w3)
  • Cranes have ten functional primary flight feathers (with a vestigial 11th in most species), and 18-25 secondary flight feathers. (B107.w8)

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Reproduction

Reproductive Season

Time of year
  • Mainly September to January. (B475, W2.Dec06.w8)
No. of Clutches
  • Repeated clutches have been reported. (B107.w8)

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Nest placement and structure

  • Usually on grasslands near water; also on pasture, crop fields, marshes. (B107.w8)
  • Sites with good all-round visibility preferred. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Sometimes eggs are laid directly on grass or bare ground, or a platform may be constructed from small stones and wetland vegetation. (B107.w8)
  • In wetlands, a pad of vegetation. Otherwise, small stones, dry vegetation, mammal dung, or no nest. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

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Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average Usually two. (B107.w8)
Range --
Egg Description Ovate to long ovate, dark buffy brown or smoky grey with heavy spotting of olive, and brown to black markings, particularly near the larger end. 52 eggs averaged 92.4 x 59.63 mm; 12 eggs from zoo birds averaged 95.94 x 58.87 mm. Average weigh of 27 eggs in Natal 171.4 g; six eggs which were newly-laid were weighed at 185.3 g (168.2 - 201.8g), compared with mid-incubation weights averaging 167.4 g and hatching weights average 156.4 g. (B480.13.w13)

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Incubation

  • 30-33 days. (B107.w8); 30 days. (B480.13.w13)
  • Incubation begins after the first egg has been laid. (B107.w8, B480.13.w13)
  • Data from thermocouples in nests indicated wide temperature fluctuations without apparent ill effect, with minima at night reaching 55.7 and 45.5 F, and maxima reaching 103.5 and 107.9 F, in two nests. (B480.13.w13)

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Hatching

Asynchronous. (B107.w8)
  • Hatch 12-24 hours after pipping. (B480.13.w13)
  • Stay on the nest for about 12 hours; the oldest chicks stay longer. (B480.13.w13)

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Fledging

Variable, minimum about 85 days. (B107.w8)

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Sexual Maturity

Males Three to five years old. (B107.w8)
Females Three to five years old. (B107.w8)

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Adults
  • Search for food on the ground and on vegetation. (B107.w8)
  • They use their short bills to graze in a manner similar to geese. (B107.w8)
  • Sometimes dig. (B107.w8, B480.13.w13)
    • Dig up roots. (B480.13.w13)
  • Peck seeds from grasses and sedges, feed from the ground (insects, frogs, crabs etc.). (B480.13.w13)
  • Feed from the ground and from low vegetation. (B481.II.2.w10)
Newly-hatched
  • Fed by the parents initially. (B480.13.w13)
  • Newly-hatched chicks will repeatedly try to pick up objects. (B480.13.w13)

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Parental Behaviour

Nest-building
  • Both male and female build the nest - if any nest is built. (B107.w8)
Incubation
  • Incubation by both birds; also periods when neither incubate (probably temperature dependent), but maintain a constant watch. (B480.13.w13)
  • Both male and female incubate. (B481.II.2.w10)
  • Cranes general: 
    • Both male and female incubate, changing over several times during the day, but with the female usually incubating during the night. (B107.w8)
    • About every 30-80 minutes, the bird which is incubating will rise and roll the eggs or adjust the nest. (B107.w8)
Newly-hatched
  • Lead chicks from the nest to higher land covered with short grass. (B480.13.w13)
  • From the second day, the female brings pieces of food to the chick's beak, touching the beak several times until the food is accepted by the chick; food is taken more readily after the first two days, and by six days it is simply offered and taken (no touching of the chick's beak required). Food offered to about 10 days, after which, pointing to food on the ground using her beak for the chicks to take; by 15 days, chicks picking up food without assistance. (B480.13.w13)
  • Lead the chicks around for much of the day; rest in the hottest part of the day, with the chicks in the shade of the adults.
  • Cranes general: Adult cranes feed their chicks from soon after hatching. Both male and female bring small items to the chicks, presenting them by holding the food item at the tip of the bill or dropping the food in front of the chicks. (B107.w8)
Juveniles
  • Juveniles are chased away at the start of the next breeding season. (B481.II.2.w10)

  • Cranes general: Adult cranes continue to care for their chicks throughout the pre-fledging period and may bring food to the chick for several months (although chicks also follow their parents to food sources from an early age). Juveniles remain with their parents through the non-breeding periods but leave at the start of the next breeding season or are driven away after the return to the breeding territory. (B107.w8)

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Social Behaviour

Intra-specific
  • Territorial while breeding (B480.13.w13, W2.Nov2013.w3), at 0.57 pairs per square kilometre in appropriate habitat. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
    • Adult pairs were described as attacking two-year-old birds in a zoo at the beginning of the breeding season by jumping onto them, kicking them above the tail while pecking the back of the neck, until the young birds escaped from the enclosure; one was killed by the attacks.(B480.13.w13)
  • Outside the breeding season, highly social, congregating in flocks often of up to 50 cranes and sometimes up to 1,000 cranes. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Newly-hatched chicks will peck at the face and bill of a nest mate; despite this, sometimes two chicks raised. (B480.13.w13)
  • Cranes general: 
    • Cranes are gregarious outside the breeding season, but separate for the breeding season. (B107.w8)
    • Juveniles which are not yet paired gather in non-breeding flocks and may be nomadic through the breeding period. (B107.w8)
    • By the end of their second year the young birds may have started to initiate pair bonds. (B107.w8)
    • Soon after the chicks fledge, families of migratory cranes gather in flocks at pre-migratory staging areas with dependable food and safe roosting sites. As the weather deteriorates, they move further south to join larger congregations of cranes, before setting out on the main migration. (B107.w8)
Inter-specific

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Sexual Behaviour

  • Form territorial pairs for breeding. (B480.13.w13)During displays, these cranes elongate the plumes on the sides of their heads, forming a "cobra-like" appearance. (B107.w8)
  • Cranes general: Monogamous. Crane pairs stay together all year, and usually remain together until one partner dies. (B107.w8)
  • Cranes general: (B107.w8)
    • Cranes copulate repeatedly, starting several weeks before egg laying.
    • Mating usually occurs before sunrise, but can also occur at other times during daylight hours. 
    • In newly-established pairs, copulation is preceded by long bouts of dancing. Well-established pairs mate without any tension. 
    • The copulatory sequence is initiated by the male or the female. The initiating bird elevates its bill, arches slightly forwards and gives a low, purring call. The mate then shows similar behaviour. 
    • The male bird (usually) circles its mate with exaggerated steps.
    • The female spreads her wings. The male approaches, jumps onto her back with his wings flapping, and crouches.
    • The female elevates her tail, the male lowers his tail, and the cloacae of the two birds meet.
    • The male jumps forward off the female over her head and for a few seconds performs threat displays.
    • Both birds perform a long preening sequence.

    (B107.w8)

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Predation in Wild

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Activity Patterns

  • Roosts in shallow wetlands. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Roosts at night in large congregations outside the breeding season. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Young non-breeding birds form flocks, roosting in shallow ponds or on river bars, and feeding on velds and in fields. (B480.13.w13)

Cranes general:

  • Roosting:
    • Cranes (except the Balearica spp.) generally roost in shallow water, occasionally on mudflats, sandbars or dry ground.
    • In flocks, cranes stand about a "peck distance" apart while roosting.
    • Most of the time they stand on one leg, switching legs several times during the night.
    • The head and neck are tucked onto or under one shoulder.
    • Cranes defecate at regular intervals while roosting.
    • On the roosting site they are still and silent unless disturbed.
    • If there is an unfamiliar sound, or one member of the flock gives an alarm call, all the birds become alert and are ready to fly.

    (B107.w8)

  • At dawn, they wake, stretch, preen and drink.
  • In small groups, they fly to a post-roosting staging area, and preen more; cranes may gather at such a site from several roost sites.
  • Small and then larger groups move from the staging area to a feeding area for the day.
  • Generally, cranes feed for a long time in the early morning, then move to loafing areas.
    • At loafing areas, cranes preen and drink, and also engage in social displays, establishing a pecking order for families, and facilitating pairing of unattached birds.
  • In the middle of very hot days, they may fly, spirally high up on thermals.
  • Later they return to feeding and watering areas and forage.
  • They then move to pre-roosting staging areas before flying to a roost site.
    • On the pre-roost staging areas they may engage in social displays.

    (B107.w8)

Circadian
  • Roost at night. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Cranes general: Diurnal. Outside the breeding season, cranes roost at night and feed during the day. (B107.w8)

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Natural Diet

Adult Diet

  • Seeds of both sedges and grasses, roots, tubers, insects (particularly grasshoppers and locusts), termites, caterpillars, worms, crabs, fish, frogs, reptiles and small mammals. (B107.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • In agricultural areas, waste grain such as maize and wheat. Takes some artificial feeds from livestock feedlots. (B107.w8)
  • Takes invertebrate pests of crops. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • insects, frogs, crabs, seeds from grasses and sedges, wheat and other crops, also some roots. (B480.13.w13)

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Newly-hatched Diet

  • Bits of crab fed by the parents. (B480.13.w13)
  • A lot of live food initially; parent-reared chicks in captivity were initially offered small crickets, ladybirds, pieces of grasshopper and bits of eathworm, ant eggs and snails, later (10 days and older) eating frogs, toads, small lizards and snakes. (B481.II.2.w10)

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Detailed Physiology Notes

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Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal

Blue crane distribution map. Click here for full-page view with caption.

  • Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland. (W2.Dec06.w8)

  • Eastern and southern South Africa with a small disjunt population in Namibia, in the Etosha Pan region. (B107.w8)

  • South Africa, plus small populations in northern Namibia and western Swaziland. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

Migration

  • Non-migratory. (B107.w8)

  • Makes local seasonal movements within South Africa. (B107.w8)

  • Partial migrant with local seasonal altitudinal movements and some movement into the Karoo biome in winter; in some areas resident or locally nomadic. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

Occasional and Accidental
  • Vagrant to other countries in southern Africa, such as Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. (B107.w8)

  • Vagrant to Botswana, Lesotho, Zimbabwe. (W2.Dec06.w8)

  • Vagrant to Botswana, Lesthoto, Swaziland, Zimbabwe. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

Introduced

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Habitat

  • Altitudes of 0-2,000 m. Mainly dry upland grasslands; also uses wetlands for roosting and nesting. (B107.w8)
  • In recent times this crane has colonised pastures, cropland and fallow fields of agricultural areas. (B107.w8)
  • Short, dry grasslands, also pasture, cropland and fallow fields. Uses wetlands only occasionally. (B475)
  • Subtropical and tropical high altitude grasslands, permanent freshwater lakes (over eight hectares) and smaller waterbodies (marshes and pools under eight hectares), arable land and pasture. (W2.Dec06.w8)
    • Mainly found in dry, short, grasslands, pastures, croplands and arable fields. Wetlands are used only occasionally. (W2.Dec06.w8)
  • Habitats with thick, short vegetation dominated by sedges and grasses preferred for breeding; occasionally wetland areas, pans, islands in dams. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • In the Western Cape area of South Africa, also agricultural areas in the lowlands: pasture, fallow fields, stubble fields, with a few pairs on costal dunes. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Outside the breeding season, found at lower altitudes: short, dry grasslands, Karoo biome (areas of mainly grass rather than shrub, and rainfall in summer over 300 mm, and fynbos biome (mainly in cultivated habitats, although natural vegetation may be used as cover for juveniles). (W2.Nov2013.w3)
    • Intolerant of burned grassland and intensively grazed grassland. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

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Conservation

Intraspecific variation

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)
  • Vulnerable. (B107.w8, B475, W2.Dec06.w8) Vulnerable, but population presently stable. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

  • Recent population estimate of 21,000 individuals. Reliable range-wide data is not available. The overall population has declined since the 1980s; declines have been dramatic in some areas, e.g. in Transvaal, Natal and Eastern Cape Province, up to 90% declines during the 1980s, and similar declines probably in Orange Free State. (B107.w8)

  • In the southwestern Cape Province these cranes are expanding into agricultural areas. (B107.w8)

  • The Namibian population is about 80 birds, and appears to be holding at this size. (B107.w8)

  • Population estimate 21,000 and declining. [2000](B475)

  • The Namibian population, at Etosha, numbers only 60 birds and is declining rapidly. (W2.Dec06.w8) Now appears stable at about 35 birds, with 67 seen at Etosha in 2006. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

  • There are only about 12 birds in western Swaziland. (W2.Dec06.w8)

  • Occasionally seen in Lesthoto. (W2.Dec06.w8)

  • In South Africa, the latest estimate suggests about 25,520 individuals. (W2.Dec06.w8) Overall, the population in South Africa has declined by about 50% since the 1970s, with falls of 80% in Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State and Eastern Cape in the 1980s; the population has increased in the south Western Cape where these birds have expanded into agricultural areas. (W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

Threats

  • The most important factors in declines have been Intentional and unintentional poisonings and commercial afforestation of large areas of the nesting grasslands. (B107.w8, B475, W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

    • Habitat loss also due to mining, agriculture, development. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

    • Intentional poisoning has increased in recent years, but accidental poisonings also occur. Often many cranes are affected by a single incident. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

  • Additional factors include:

    • Intensive livestock grazing. (B107.w8)

    • Disturbance. (B107.w8)

    • Expansion of urban areas. (B107.w8)

    • Expansion of agricultural areas. (B107.w8)

    • Collisions with utility lines and with fences. (B107.w8, B475, W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

      • Note: monitoring has indicated that collisions with power lines may be the major mortality factor. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

    • Illegal taking of young cranes (fledglings) into captivity (as pets and for food). (B107.w8, B475, W2.Dec06.w8)

      • Also for local and international trade. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

    • Predation by domestic dogs. (B475, W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

    • Water troughs in which chicks drown. (B475, W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

  • Prolonged drought is suspected to be the cause of the decline in Namibia. (B475, W2.Dec06.w8)

    • This results in competition with domestic stock for habitat. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

  • Climate change could result in further future declines. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

  • Both power lines and wind farms could be important threats. (W2.Nov2013.w3)

Conservation measures

  • Increased conservation efforts since the 1980s. (B107.w8)

    • efforts to mitigate power line collisions;

    • Addressing illegal trade;

    • stricter legal protection;

    • Local and national surveys in South Africa;

    • increased research on the biology and ecology of the blue crane;

    • habitat protection and management programmes (particularly on private land);

    • local conservation organisations established;

    • education facilities, programmes and publications developed;

    • More ecologically-sensitive agrochemicals introduced; use of agrochemicals better controlled.

    • In Namibia, a Crane Working Group established, and associated education, ringing and protection, with genetic studies and studies using transmitters planned.

    (B107.w8, B475, W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

Further conservation targets:

  • Include habitat management for this species in the future planning of afforestable regions.

  • Monitor population trends via surveys.

  • Encourage more responsible use of agrochemicals.

  • Awareness campaigns targeted at farm workers to improve awareness and reduce deliberate crane poisoning for food.

  • More research on power line impacts and risk factors; increase visibility of hazardous power lines using appropriate markers.

  • Discourage taking of wild fledglings. 

  • Encourage Western Cape mainenance of a pasture/cereal mosaic.

  • Increase grassland and wetland protection north of Etosha National Park, Namibia.

  • Biodiversity Management Plan  for Species for cranes.

(B475, W2.Dec06.w8, W2.Nov2013.w3)

General Legislation --
CITES listing
Red-data book listing
  • Vulnerable A2acde ver 3.1, 2012. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
    • Also previously classified as vulnerable in 1994, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2006. (W2.Nov2013.w3)
  • Vulnerable. [2000](B475)
  • Vulnerable (VU A2bcde+3bcde) (2006) "This species has declined rapidly over the last three generations, largely due to direct poisoning and to afforestation of its grassland breeding habitat, and this decline is projected to continue unless appropriate conservation measures are implemented. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable." (W2.Dec06.w8)

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Captive Populations

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Trade

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