Emberiza citrinella - Yellowhammer:

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Summary Information
Living Organisms / Animalia / Craniata / Aves / Passeriformes / Fringilidae / Emberiza / Species

This section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. Although it identifies that taxonomic interrelationships of species (see "header") it does not currently contain detailed information on the bird species itself. As Wildpro is developed, we will gradually convert these pages into full Species pages.

The taxonomy of birds is still under review and the A World Checklist of Birds by Burt L. Monroe, Jr and Charles G. Sibley (B89) has been chosen as the primary reference. The taxonomic structure will be amended when new editions or complete references are identified by the scientific world as the recognized primary references for taxonomy.

Alternative Names
Distribution Eurasia; winters to north-western Africa, eastern Asia (B89)
Habitat Breeding - "Open ground with shrubs, woodland edges, hedgerows. Where range overlaps with Cirl Bunting, this species tends to be more upland" (B163)
Further Information Feeding:
  • food - mainly insects, sometimes seeds
  • feeding behaviour - ground gleaning


  • location and structure - cup nest on ground, sometimes on bank
  • nest building - male and female, sometimes just male
  • breeding structure - monogamous


  • markings - patterned
  • number of eggs - 3-5 (2-6)
  • broods - 2-3 broods
  • incubation - by female, female more than male; 11-14 days


  • development - Altricial
  • parental caring for young - by male and female
  • fledging - 12-13 days

(B163, B164)

Organisations (UK Contacts):

Electronic Library (further reading):

  • --

General Legislation:

  • This species is listed on Schedule 3 - Part I (Birds which may be sold alive at all times if ringed and bred in captivity: Notes on the revised schedules state "NB: Certain birds on Schedule 4 may also be sold under licence provided they are registered with the DETR") of the LUK2 - Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 of the United Kingdom. (W5.Oct01)

Individual techniques:

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