Parus ater - Coal tit:

Summary Information
Living OrganismsAnimalia / Craniata / Aves / Passeriformes / Paridae / Parus / Species

This section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. Although it identifies that taxonomic interrelationships of species (see "header") it does not currently contain detailed information on the bird species itself. As WILDPro is developed, we will gradually convert these pages into full Species pages.

The taxonomy of birds is still under review and the A World Checklist of Birds by Burt L. Monroe, Jr and Charles G. Sibley (B89) has been chosen as the primary reference. The taxonomic structure will be amended when new editions or complete references are identified by the scientific world as the recognized primary references for taxonomy.

Alternative Names
Distribution Palearctic (B89)
Habitat Breeding - "Mainly coniferous woodlands (especially spruce), but also mixed woodlands, more open habitats such as gardens" (B163)
Further Information Feeding:
  • food - summer: insects, winter: seeds
  • feeding behaviour - foliage gleaning, sometimes hovers and gleans


  • location and structure - crevice in coniferous tree or bank
  • nest building - female
  • breeding structure - monogamous


  • markings - patterned
  • number of eggs - 8-9 (6-12)
  • broods - 1-2 broods
  • incubation - by female; 14-16 days


  • development - Altricial
  • parental caring for young - by male and female
  • fledging - 18-20 days

(B163, B164)

Organisations (UK Contacts):

Electronic Library (further reading):

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General Legislation:

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Individual techniques:

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