Turdus torquatus - Ring ouzel:

Summary Information
Living Organisms / Animalia / Craniata / Aves / Passeriformes / Muscicapidae / Turdus / Species

This section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. Although it identifies that taxonomic interrelationships of species (see "header") it does not currently contain detailed information on the bird species itself. As WILDPro is developed, we will gradually convert these pages into full Species pages.

The taxonomy of birds is still under review and the A World Checklist of Birds by Burt L. Monroe, Jr and Charles G. Sibley (B89) has been chosen as the primary reference. The taxonomic structure will be amended when new editions or complete references are identified by the scientific world as the recognized primary references for taxonomy.

Alternative Names
Distribution Western, south-western Palearctic; winters to northern Africa (B89)
Habitat Breeding - "Open moorland with rocky areas, sometimes with trees, usually in uplands, less often to sea level. may need access to areas of short grass for feeding" (B163)
Further Information Feeding:
  • food - Summer: Insects. Winter: Fruit
  • feeding behaviour - ground gleans, sometimes foliage gleans


  • location and structure - Cup nest in crevice on ground
  • nest building - female
  • breeding structure - monogamous


  • markings - patterned
  • number of eggs - 4 (3-6)
  • broods - 1-2 broods
  • incubation - female more than male; 12-14 days


  • development - Altricial
  • parental caring for young - by male and female
  • fledging - 14-16 days

(B163, B164)

Organisations (UK Contacts):

Electronic Library (further reading):

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General Legislation:

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Individual techniques:

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