Living Organisms / Animalia / Craniata / Mammalia / Chiroptera / Vespertilionidae / Myotis / Species
Myotis mystacinus - Whiskered bat (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE / MORPHOLOGY

LIFE STAGES / NATURAL DIET / PHYSIOLOGY

BEHAVIOUR

HABITAT & RANGE

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Murin à moustaches (French)
  • Kleine Bartfledermaus (German)
  • Murciélago bigotudo (Spanish)
  • Myotis mystacina
  • Vespertilio mystacinus Kuhl, 1819; Germany.
  • Selysius mystacinus

Alternative species names (the second part of the binomial species names): [Genus] aurascens; [Genus] aureus; [Genus] bulgaricus; [Genus] collaris; [Genus] davidi; [Genus] hajastanicus; [Genus] humeralis; [Genus] kukunoriensis; [Genus] lugubris; [Genus] meinertzhageni; [Genus] nigrofuscus; [Genus] nipalensis; [Genus] pamirensis; [Genus] przewalskii; [Genus] rufofuscus; [Genus] schinzii; [Genus] schrankii; [Genus] sogdianus; [Genus] transcapsicus (B141).

Names for new-borns / juveniles

 
Names for males  
Names for females  

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General Appearance

Small bat. Fur shaggy; wings narrow, membranes black/dark brown, translucent, shiny; nose and ears black/dark brown. (B142, B167)

Similar Species

Distinguished from non-Myotis bat species in Britain and Ireland by combination of:
  • Simple form of nose
  • Wide-spaced ears
  • Lack of post-calcarial lobe to membrane.

Distinguished from other Myotis spp.:

  • Forearm less than 50mm long.
  • Ears less than 18mm long
  • Tail lacks 1mm long stiff bristles.
  • Foot about one third length of shin, calcar half of foot-tail length, fur shaggy black/brown with paler tips.
  • Ear/nose usually black, tragus pointed, outer (posterior) edge straight/concave. Penis of males thin, parallel-sides (B167).
  • N.B. may be very difficult to distinguish from Myotis brandtii - Brandt's bat (B167).

Distinguished from Myotis daubentonii - Daubenton's bat by: face, nostrils, ear and membranes very dark grey-black, dorsal pelage dark brown, feet small, tragus long, pointed with straight/concave outer margin (B142).

Distinguished from Myotis brandtii - Brandt's bat by: more pointed ear with relatively longer tragus, and by shape of penis in adult males (thin with parallel sides) (B142).

Sexual Dimorphism Males average smaller than females e.g. mean forearm length males 33.4mm versus females 33.7mm (B142)

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References

Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B51, B141, B142, B143, B147, B167, B221

Husbandry references:
B142

ORGANISATIONS
(UK Contacts)

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

  • --

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

  • Insectivorous Bats (Microchiroptera)

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

  • Insectivorous Bats (Microchiroptera)

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Husbandry Information

Notes

Maintenance for several months reported; fed moths and beetles (B142).
Individual Techniques linked in Wildpro

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Appearance / Morphology

Measurement & Weight

Length
  • Head-body length: 35-48mm (B142).
  • Forearm length: 30-37mm (B142).
Height --
Adult weight General
  • 4 to 8g during hibernation (B142)
Male --
Female --
New-born weight --
Growth rate --

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Head

General Face hairy, dark brown (B167); very dark grey-black (B142).

Skull: condobasilar length 12.0-13.5mm

Nose: Muzzle narrow, unspecialised. Nostrils black, open outwards. Lips dark brown

Ears: well spaced. Held upright. Medium length, with longer length than width. Emargination on outer margin. No post-calcarial lobe. Tragus medium-long (slightly over half length of conch), straight/slightly concave anterior border, convex posterior (outer) edge, narrowing to rounded/blunt point (B142, B167)

Dentition (Teeth)
  • I 2/3, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3 (B142).
  • Anterior angle of upper P3 lacks the conspicuous cusp on the anterior inner angle which is found in Myotis brandtii - Brandt's bat (B142).
Eyes --

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Legs and Tracks

  • Wingspan: 210-240mm (B142).
  • Forearm length: 30-37mm (B142).
  • Foot about one third of shin length. Calcar half of foot-to-tail length (B167).

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Tail

--

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Coat / Pelage

Adult Female Shaggy coat.
  • Dorsal: dark brown with tips of hairs paler golden brown.
  • Ventral: greyish white.
  • Membranes: very dark brown to black.

(B142).

Variations (If present) --
Moult --
New-born / Juvenile
  • Almost black up to 12 months old (B142)

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Neonate (New-born) Characteristics

--

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Detailed Anatomy Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)

--

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Life Stages / Natural Diet / Physiology

Reproductive Stages

Breeding Season
  • Apparently over winter: increasing proportion found inseminated as hibernation progresses (B142).
Oestrus / Ovulation --
Gestation / Pregnancy --
Parturition / Birth --
Neonatal development --
Litter size --
Time between Litters / Litters per year --
Lactation / Milk Production --
Sexual Maturity
  • Females: most 15 months but some at 3 months (data from before Myotis mystacinus and Myotis brandtii - Brandt's bat recognised as seperate species) (B142).
Longevity
  • Individuals recorded at 18 and 23 years (B142).

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Natural Diet

Small insects and spiders (B142).

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Detailed Physiology Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)

Temperature --
Pulse --
Respiration --
Faeces --
Haematology / Biochemistry --
Chromosomes --
Other --

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Feed on insects in flight, also take prey fom foliage (B142).

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Parental Behaviour

--

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Social Behaviour / Territoriality

Intra-specific
  • Roost singly not in clusters.
  • Females in large nursery colonies during summer.
  • Males appear solitary in summer.

(B142).

Inter-specific --

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Sexual Behaviour

Promiscuous (B142).

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Predation in Wild

Hibernating bats reported eaten by mouse or shrew in caves in Suffolk (B142).

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Activity Patterns

  • Flight medium speed, fluttering, up to 20m high, often over a hedgerow, level but with occasional stoops and short glides.
  • While hanging freely, wings usually by sides not wrapped around body.

(B142)

Circadian
  • Emergence often around sunset.
  • Prabably remain active throughout night (intermittently).
  • In summer may be two distinct peaks, after sunset and before sunrise (recorded in Finland).
  • Winter and spring, often seen flying during daytime (data from before Myotis mystacinus and Myotis brandtii - Brandt's bat recognised as seperate species) (B142).

(B142)

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Habitat and Range

General Habitat Type

  • Wooded and open country.
  • Often near water.

(B142)

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Nests / Burrows / Shelters

  • Summer roosts: in trees, buildings.
  • Winter: caves (cooler entrance areas prefered) and cellars; may also use trees and houses
  • Use bat boxes.
  • May hang freely from roof; also foundin tight crevices.

(B142)

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Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal Palearctic: Europe and Palearctic Asia. From Ireland northern Iberia and Morocco eastwards to Korea, Japan and western Himalayas, south-eastern China, possibly Hainan.
  • In Europe: north to 64°N. Not found in northern Scotland or in Denmark except Bornholm (B143).
  • In Britain: England and Wales ("status in Scotland uncertain" (B142)). Also throughout Ireland.

(B51, B147, B142, B143)

Occasional and Accidental --
Introduced

--.

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Conservation

Intraspecific variation

  • Six subspecies recognised.
  • Nominate form in Europe east to Transcaucasia or further.

(B143)

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)
  • Population density increases south to north.
  • Rare in Ireland and southern Europe.

(B143)

  • In Britain: native, locally distributed. Pre-breeding population estimate of about 40,000, including 30,500 in England,1500 in Scotland, 8000 in Wales. Population estimate was "based on a very limited amount of information for the species" although additional knowledge "may not necessarily have made a substantial difference to the estimate". (B221)
General Legislation
  • Bern Convention, Appendix II
  • Bonn Convention, Appendix II.
  • EU Habitats and Species Directive, Annex IV

(B143)

CITES listing --
Red-data book listing --
Threats
  • Chemical treatment of timber main threat (B143).
Captive Populations  
Trade  

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