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Living OrganismsAnimalia / Craniata / Mammalia / Lagomorpha / Leporidae / Lepus / Species

Lepus callotis - White-sided jackrabbit (Click photographs/illustrations for full picture & further details)

 

INDEX - INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE / MORPHOLOGY

LIFE STAGES / NATURAL DIET / PHYSIOLOGY

BEHAVIOUR

HABITAT & RANGE

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Beautiful-eared jackrabbit. (B430.w2)
  • Gaillard jackrabbit. (B430.w2)
  • Snow sides. (B430.w2)
  • White-sided jack rabbit. (B51)
  • Lepus mexicanus. (B51, B430.w2, B607.w20)
  • Lepus nigricaudatus. (B430.w2, B607.w20)
  • Lepus callotis battyi. (B607.w20)
  • Lepus callotis callotis. (B430.w2)
  • Lepus callotis gaillardi. (B430.w2)

Names for new-borns / juveniles

  • Leveret. (B285.w5b)

Names for males

Names for females

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General Appearance

Adult:

General Information

  • All hares have well-furred feet. (B147)
  • "The upper parts of the body are usually brown or grayish brown, and the underparts are paler or white." (B147)
  • Some species of hare have black tips to their ears, and some have black fur on the upper side of their tail. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Medium-sized species. (B605.4.w4)
  • About 2.5 - 2.7 kg, buffy or fawn coloured with whitish sides and a black dorsal tail surface. (J469.442.w1)

Newborn:

  • Lepus spp. leverets are furred at birth. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)

Similar Species

Specific Lepus callotis Information

Sexual Dimorphism

--

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References

Species Authors & Referees

Author: Kathryn Pintus BSc MSc MSc (V.w115); Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)

ORGANISATIONS

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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Husbandry Information

Notes

  • --

Management Techniques

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Appearance / Morphology

Measurement & Weight

Notes

  • Hares are generally larger than rabbits. (B430.w2)

LENGTH
Adult:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Males are smaller than females. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)
  • Length: 
    • Male: 525-532 mm (Average: 529 mm). (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)
    • Female: 541-575 mm (Average: 558 mm). (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)

Newborns: --

HEIGHT
Adults and sub-adults: --
Juveniles: --

WEIGHT
Adult:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • 2.7 kg. (B605.4.w4)
  • Male: 1,500-2,200 g (Average: 1,800 g). (B430.w2)
    • 1.50 -2.20 kg, average 1.82 kg. (J469.442.w1)
  • Female: 2,500-3,200 g (Average: 2,900 g). (B430.w2)
    • 2.45 - 3.20 kg average 2.95 kg. (J469.442.w1)

Newborns: --

GROWTH RATE --

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Head and Neck

Notes

GENERAL HEAD STRUCTURE:
Adult:

  • This species has very large ears, 138 mm long. (B605.4.w4)
  • The ears do NOT have black tips. (B605.4.w4, J469.442.w1)
  • Ear length: 102-136 mm (average 118.2 mm). (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)
    • Female 122 - 155 mm mean 143 mm; male 111 - 155 mm, mean 135 mm. (J469.442.w1)
  • "The ears are scantily coated with short hairs and their concave surfaces are almost bare, with a dusky spot along the posterior border." (B430.w2)

Newborn: --

DENTITION:
Adult:

General Information

  • Rabbits and hares have a total of 28 teeth. (B285.w5a)
  • The lower tooth rows are closer together than the upper tooth rows. (B147)
  • Lagomorphs differ from rodents by having two pairs of upper incisors rather than just the one pair. The additional set of incisors are called peg teeth and are found directly behind the long pair in the upper jaw. (B147, B285.w5a, B605.1.w1)
  • At birth, lagomorphs actually have three pairs of upper incisors, but they quickly lose the outer incisor on each side. (B147)
  • The incisors are covered completely by enamel. (B147)
  • The upper incisors' roots are found in the skull's premaxillary bones. However, the length of the lower incisors' roots varies. (B147)
    • [Note: lagomorphs have teeth which grow throughout their lives. For this reason the portion of the teeth which is not exposed (not above the gum line) is strictly speaking not a "root"; however, it is sometimes convenient to describe it as a root.]
  • The first upper incisors have a straight cutting edge. (B147)
  • The peg teeth lack a cutting edge. (B147)

EYES:
Adult:

General Information

  • Lagomorph eyes are positioned such that they allow for good broad-field vision. (B285.w5a)
  • Hares and rabbits have large eyes which are adapted to both their crepuscular and nocturnal activity patterns. (B285.w5b)
  • Leporids have "large eyes to increase visual acuity in dim light." (B430.w2)

Newborn: 

General Information

  • Lepus spp. leverets are born with their eyes open. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)

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Legs, Spine and Tracks

Notes

General Information
  • All hares have well-furred feet. (B147)
  • Almost all Lepus species have large hind feet. (B147)
Specific Lepus callotis information
  • In this species, the hind foot is relatively short. (B605.4.w4)
  • Hind foot on average 126 mm long. (B605.4.w4)
    • Females 121 - 135 mm average 126 mm; males 119 - 124 mm, average 121 mm. (J469.442.w1)

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Tail

Notes

General Information
  • Leporids have a short tail. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis information

  • In this species, the upperpart of tail is black. (B605.4.w4)
  • Length: 47-92 mm (Average: 71 mm). (B430.w2)

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Skin / Coat / Pelage

Notes

Adult:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Upperparts: dark with a pinkish buff colouration (B605.4.w4); pale brownish-red colour, mixed with black. (B430.w2) "pale ochraceous cinnamon, mixed with black". (J469.442.w1)
  • Underparts: This species has white sides and underparts. (B430.w2, B605.4.w4, J469.442.w1). The area in front of the thighs may be slightly darker. (B430.w2)
  • Rump: Grey (B605.4.w4); white but lined with some black hairs. (B430.w2)
  • The nape is brown to blackish. (B605.4.w4)
  • Ears yellow-brown mixed with black towars the front and with white towards the back and at the tips. (J469.442.w1)
  • Upperpart of tail is black. (B430.w2, B605.4.w4, J469.442.w1)
  • Underside of tail is white. (B430.w2)
  • Many of the tail hairs are tipped with white. (B430.w2)
  • This species does NOT have black tips. (B605.4.w4)
  • "Compared with L.californicus [Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit], the only other hare that shares its range in the United States, L.callotis can be distinguished by its whitish rather than brownish-gray sides and white-tipped rather than black-tipped ears." (B430.w2)

Adult Colour variations:

  • Some Lepus species moult into a white winter pelage (B147, B605.4.w4), the timing of which depends upon the number of daylight hours. (B147)
  • "All species that turn white in winter undergo two molts per year. Some species that molt twice, however, do not have a white winter pelage." In these species, the winter pelage is grey, whereas the summer fur is brown. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • There are some geographical variations in colouration, such as paler, buffer pelage, paler rump patches and paler shoulder patches in Lepus callotis gailliardi from Cihuahua (versus Lepus calliotis calliotis from Jalisco): overall, Lepus calliotis callioti has a more blackish hue with a black nape patch, while Lepus callotis gailliardi has an overall pale-buff hue and a brown nape. (J469.442.w1)
  • There is only a slight difference in colour between the summer and winter coats, but the summer pelage is shorter. (J469.442.w1)

Newborn / Juvenile:

General Information

  • Lepus spp. leverets are furred at birth. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)
  • Two young females "still in the soft, woolly coat of early life" had cream-buff to cinnamon dorsal pelage, with a cinnomon crown of the head and clayer-buff sides of the head, a cream buff orbital stripe and buff gular area. The tail was grizzled black dorsally, mixed with yellowish white. (J469.442.w1)

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Detailed Anatomy Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)

Notes

The details below are from general lagomorph, leporid and Lepus information.

Skull
  • Leporids have an arched skull with a slight constriction between the orbits. (B147)
  • Lepus species have a skull that is lighter than the skull of rabbit species. (B605.4.w4)
Female reproductive tract
  • Female Lepus spp. have three to five pairs of mammary glands, with an extensive mass of mammary tissue. (B147, B287)
Male reproductive tract
  • Males lack a baculum (B147)
  • Testes are in the scrotum located in front of the penis (B147)
Digestive system
  • The largest part of the digestive tract is the caecum; this has a capacity up to ten times that of the stomach. (B147)

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Life Stages / Natural Diet / Physiology

Life Stages

Notes

BREEDING SEASON:

General Information

  • The majority of Lepus species have a long breeding season. (B147)
  • Southern Lepus species breed throughout the year. (B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • "The breeding season is unknown, but extends at least from mid-April to mid-August." (B605.4.w4)
  • The breeding season is between mid-April and mid-August, and lasts at least 18 weeks. However, pregnant females can be found from March to October. (B430.w2)
  • Breeding season lasts at least 18 weeks, mid-April to mid-August. (J469.442.w1)
BREEDING SEASON:

General Information

  • The majority of Lepus species have a long breeding season. (B147)
  • Southern Lepus species breed throughout the year. (B285.w5c)
OESTRUS / OVULATION:

General Information

GESTATION / PREGNANCY:

General Information

  • Under adverse conditions (such as during climatic or social stress), female lagomorphs are able to resorb embryos. (B285.w5a)
  • It is thought that some lagomorph species are able to conceive a second litter even before the last young is born; this is known as superfetation. (B285.w5a)
  • Gestation for Lepus species varies, but can be up to 50 days. (B147,B285.w5c)
PARTURITION / BIRTH:

General Information

  • Leverets are precocial and are born into surface-depression forms. (B285.w5b)
  • Females give birth to their young in open areas, or in a shallow depression in the ground. (B147)
  • Leverets remain hidden within dense vegetation, and the female visits them in order to nurse them. (B147)
Neonatal / Development:

General Information

  • Leverets are precocial; they are born fully furred, with open eyes, and are able to move about soon after birth. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)
  • Young are only suckled briefly once every 24 hours. (B285.w5b)
  • Approximately three days after birth, leverets disperse to separate hiding locations. Leveret litter-mates will regroup for a brief suckling bout at a particular location at precisely defined intervals. Such regrouping often takes place around sunset. (B285.w5b)
LITTER SIZE:

General Information

  • The size of litters produced by leporids at northern latitudes tends to be greater than those produced by leporids at southern latitudes. (B430.w2)
  • Litter sizes in Lepus species range from one to nine offspring. (B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus callotis Information 

  • Average litter size for this species is 2.2 (data taken from ten females). (B605.4.w4, J469.442.w1)
  • Range of litter sizes: One to four. (B430.w2, B605.4.w4)
  • Average litter size: 2. (B430.w2)
TIME BETWEEN LITTERS / LITTERS PER YEAR:

General Information

  • The inter-birth interval in lagomorphs is reduced by the phenomenon of induced ovulation, and post-partum oestrus, which allows females to conceive immediately after she has given birth. (B285.w5a)
  • A female can produce up to three or four litters per year. (B430.w2)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • At least three litters per year. (B605.4.w4)
LACTATION / MILK PRODUCTION:

General Information

  • Leporids only release milk once in every 24 hour period. (B285.w5b)
  • Leporid milk has a very high fat and protein content, and as such is highly nutritious. Although the lactation period is brief, the milk is pumped into the young at a high speed.(B285.w5b)
  • The lactation period has a duration of between 17 and 23 days. (B285.w5b)
SEXUAL MATURITY:

General Information

  • Most species of lagomorph reach sexual maturity relatively early. (B285.w5a)
  • Lepus young do not usually breed in their first year of life. (B147)
MALE SEASONAL VARIATION:

General Information

  • Testes are intra-abdominal outside the breeding season, descending into the scrotum during the breeding season. (B147)
LONGEVITY / MORTALITY:

General Information

  • Rabbits and hares in the wild live for less than a year on average; a maximum age of 12 years has been recorded in a couple of species. (B285.w5b)
  • "Only a minority of hares survive their first year in the wild, though survivors can reach 5 years; in captivity, hares can live to 6 or 7 years." (B285.w5c)

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Natural Diet

Notes

NATURAL DIET:

General Lepus Information

  • Hares mainly eat grasses and herbaceous plants, but do also feed on twigs, buds and bark. (B147)

  • Isolated cases have been reported of hares capturing and eating voles and young lagomorphs. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • 99% of food eaten is grasses. (B430.w2, B605.4.w4)

  • Grasses eaten include: Buchloe dactyloides, Bouteloua gracilis, Hilaria mutica, Pancium obtusum and Muhlenbergia torreyi. (B605.4.w4)

  • May dig for Cyperus rotundus roots during the dry season. (B605.4.w4)

QUANTITY EATEN: --

STUDY METHODS: --

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Hibernation / Aestivation

Notes

--

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Haematology / Biochemistry

Notes

HAEMATOLOGY: --

BIOCHEMISTRY: --

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Detailed Physiology Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in WILDPro)

Notes

METABOLISM (TEMPERATURE): --

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (RESPIRATION): --

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (PULSE/HEART RATE): --

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM (FAECES AND GUT MOTILITY):

General Information

  • Lagomorphs have digestive systems which are adapted for processing large quantities of vegetation. (B285.w5a)
  • Lagomorphs are well adapted for obtaining the greatest possible value from their food. They produce two types of fecal material: moist pellets and dry pellets. The moist pellets are expelled and then eaten (a behaviour known as coprophagy (B285.w5a)); this is done with little or no chewing, and as a result the majority of the food passes through the digestive tract twice (this is thought to have the same function as 'chewing the cud' in ruminants). The dry faecal pellets are not eaten. (B147)

URINARY SYSTEM (URINE): --

CHROMOSOMES: 

  • All the Lepus species have 48 chromosomes. (B605.4.w4)

MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM: --

SPECIAL SENSES AND VOCALISATIONS:

General Information

  • All lagomorphs use scent products secreted from special glands. (B285.w5a) These glands are located under the chins and in the groin, and are believed to play a key role in sexual communication, as well as in signalling social status in some gregarious species. (B285.w5b)
  • Whereas pikas tend to be more vocal, rabbits and hares rely strongly on scent rather than sound as a means of communication. (B285.w5b)
  • High-pitched distress squeals are emitted by leporids when captured by a predator. (B285.w5b, B430.w2)
  • The North American leporids have large ears with highly-developed hearing, an adaptation which allows them to detect predators when foraging in open habitats. (B430.w2)
  • Hares communicate with each other by drumming their feet. (B147)
  • Deep grumbling has been reported in Lepus species, and shrill calls are emitted when the animal is in pain. (B285.w5c)
  • "When seeking the young for nursing, females call the young and are answered." (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Three main calls have been recognised:
    • Scream: when handled. (B605.4.w4); a fear or alarm reaction. (J469.442.w1)
    • Harsh nasal grunts - these have been recorded from dominant males (directed towards subordinates). (B605.4.w4); made by the male of a pair towards an intruding male until it leaves/is chased away. J469.442.w1
    • Trilling grunt - by male when pursuing a female. (B605.4.w4, J469.442.w1)

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general lagomorph information.
  • Lagomorphs are well adapted for obtaining the greatest possible value from their food. They produce two types of faecal material: moist pellets and dry pellets. The moist pellets are expelled and then eaten; this is done with little or no chewing, and as a result the majority of the food passes through the digestive tract twice (this is thought to have the same function as 'chewing the cud' in ruminants). The dry faecal pellets are not eaten. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Chews and pulls on grass blades close to the gound until the blades break or are pulled out by the roots, then raises its head, crouches and chews the piece of grass slowly, one end sticking out the side of its mouth. It does not retrieve any blades which drop from its mouth. (J469.442.w1)
  • The forepaws are used to dig up bulbous Cyerus rotundus - Nutgrass tubers, producing foraging depressions which are about 12 x 9 cm and 3 cm deep. (J469.442.w1)
  • Often, feacal pellets are found in the same ara as several foraging depressions. (J469.442.w1)

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Parental Behaviour

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general leporid information.

General Information

  • Male leporids are not generally involved in care of the young. However, if adult females attack young leporids, males will intervene, a behaviour known as 'policing'. (B285.w5b)
  • Even maternal care of the young is not particularly prominent in leporids, hence this reproductive strategy is known as 'absentee parentism'. (B285.w5a)
  • Leporids demonstrate an unusual system of nursing; the young are suckled only briefly (often less than five minutes) just once every 24 hours. (B285.w5b)
  • It is thought that the lack of social contact between the mother and her young is a strategy which diminishes the chances of attracting the attention of predators. (B285.w5b)
  • The entrances to breeding tunnels are carefully re-sealed following each bout of suckling. (B285.w5b)

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Social Behaviour / Territoriality / Predation / Learning

Notes

SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR:

General Information

  • Most North American leporid species are solitary, but congregations of these animals often occur in favoured feeding grounds. (B430.w2)
  • Hares are generally solitary animals, whereas rabbits are solitary to gregarious. (B430.w2)
  • With the exception of the mating season (B147), most Lepus species are solitary. (B147, B285.w5c)
  • Hares communicate with each other by drumming their feet. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

PREDATION:

PREDATOR AVOIDANCE:

General Information

  • Hares will run out into open areas and use their speed in order to avoid predators. (B285.w5b, B605.4.w4)
  • Speeds of up to 72 km/h (45 mph) have been reported for hares. (B285.w5b)
  • "Instead of seeking cover, hares rely on their well-developed running ability to escape from danger: also on camouflage, by flattening on vegetation." (B285.w5c)
  • Jackrabbits can avoid predators by crouching against the ground in any available cover. (B147)
  • Jackrabbits are capable of running for greater distances than true rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.). (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • "The white side fur is raised and flashed towards a pursuer and the hare may also leap high in the air and flash at the peak of its jump, landing where it started from." (B605.4.w4)
  • In New Mexico, white-sided jackrabbits were only flushed in tabosagrass, and appeared to flee to other stands of tabosagrass. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)
  • When a White-sided jackrabbit has been disturbed, it flashes its white sides alternately as it runs away. During its escape run, the jackrabbit may jump straight up in the air, extend its hind legs and flash its white sides. (B430.w2, v)

POPULATION DENSITIES:

General Lepus Information

  • Drastic, cyclic population density fluctuations occur in northern Lepus species. (B147)
  • Predator population cycles follow Lepus cycles; once predator populations have crashed, and vegetation has had the chance to regenerate, hare population numbers are able to start increasing once more. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Densities are much lower than those seen in Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit. (B605.4.w4)
  • "Density is greatest in habitats composed primarily of grasses." (B430.w2)
  • The average density for this species has been estimated to be approximately one jackrabbit per 32 hectares. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)

HOME RANGES AND DISTANCES TRAVELLED:

General Lepus Information

  • "Habitat type has a marked effect on home-range size within each species, but differences also occur between species." (B285.w5c)
  • Lepus species vary greatly in their home range sizes, with some species having home ranges of only 4-20 hectares, and others exceeding 300 hectares. (B285.w5c)
  • Areas within a couple of metres of forms may be defended, but home ranges often overlap, often with common feeding grounds. (B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Home ranges overlap. (B605.4.w4)
  • No estimates available for range area. (B605.4.w4)
  • "White-sided jackrabbits will move at least a mile to feed or when disturbed." (B605.4.w4)

TERRITORIALITY:

General Information

  • The majority of hares and rabbits are non-territorial; some hares occupy home ranges of up to 300 ha (740 acres). Ranges of individuals may overlap in favoured feeding grounds. (B285.w5b)

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Sexual Behaviour

Notes

General Information
  • All lagomorphs use scent products secreted from special glands. (B285.w5a) These glands are located under the chins and in the groin, and are believed to play a key role in sexual communication, as well as in signalling social status in some gregarious species. (B285.w5b)
  • Male Lepus become bolder during the mating season, and engage in fights with other males, and pursue females. (B147)
  • Male Lepus fight by using boxing motions with their forefeet and kicking with their hind feet. (B147)
  • Males often bite and kick the females, often leading to serious injury. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

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Activity Patterns, Self-grooming and Navigation

Notes

ACTIVITY PATTERNS:

General Information 

  • All the lagomorphs are terrestrial. (B147)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Activity is affected by cloud cover, precipitation and wind. (J469.442.w1)

SELF-GROOMING: --

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM: 

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • This species is strictly nocturnal. (B605.4.w4)
  • This species is at its most active between 2200 and 0500 hours. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)

  • The White-sided jackrabbit has been noted to be most active on clear nights with bright moonlight. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)

SPEED OF MOVEMENT:

General Information

  • The North American leporids are able to escape predators by taking instant flight at high speed. (B430.w2)
  • Leporids can run at speeds of up to 80 km/hr. (B147)

NAVIGATION: --

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Habitat and Range

General Habitat Type

Notes

General Information
  • Most Lepus species live in open grassy habitats. (B147, B285.w5c)
  • Jackrabbits tend to be found in areas of sparse vegetation. (B147)
Specific Lepus callotis Information
  • "In New Mexico the white-sided jackrabbit is restricted to high grasslands of Bouteloua, Muhlenbergia, Buchloe, Lycurus, and Sitanion, at 1,500 to 1,600m." (B605.4.w4)
  • Grassy plains. (B430.w2)
  • Avoids hilly areas. (B430.w2)
  • Prefers areas of level topography, which have little shrub cover. (B430.w2)
  • "In New Mexico, it is found at elevations of 1,525-1,620 meters in an area that averages 38 centimeters of precipitation annually." (B430.w2)
  • In northwestern Chihuahua, about 1,350 - 2,100m; in northern Puebla, 2,250 m; in morelos, about 750 m. (J469.442.w1)
  • In New Mexico, the dominant species found in the desert-grassland inhabited by the White-sided jackrabbit are: blue grama, black grama, ring muhly, buffalo grass, wolftail, bottlebrush-grass, and squirreltail. (B430.w2)
  • Common shrubs found in habitat inhabited by White-sided jackrabbits include soap-tree, yucca and honey mesquite. (B430.w2)
  • "Density is greatest in habitats composed primarily of grasses." (B430.w2)
  • Grassy plains: (J469.442.w1)
    • "In the only intensive study of habitat selection by white-sided jackrabbits, this species was observed in grassland habitat 97.1 percent of the time, in grass-forb association 2.4 percent of the time, and in grass-shrub type 0.5 percent of the time. All the nongrassland habitat was adjacent to large expanses of grassland." (B430.w2)

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Nests / Burrows / Shelters

Notes

General Information
  • Rabbits tend to live in burrows or in surface nests which are joined by clear trails, whereas hares prefer to reside in caves or crevices in rocks. (B430.w2)
  • Lepus species do not usually dig burrows or live in them, favouring fleeing rather than hiding as a mode of escape. (B147)
  • The majority of hares rest underneath vegetation, generally lying within shallow dips in the ground (soil, snow or grass) known as 'forms'. (B147)
  • The majority of Lepus species live on the surface, but some do dig burrows or use tunnels and holes made by other animals. (B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Rests in 'shelter forms' which it constructs itself. (B430.w2)
  • Shelter forms average 37 x 18.3 x 6.3 cm deep in size, and are slightly larger than those of Lepus californicus - Black-tailed jackrabbit. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)
  • Shelter forms are usually constructed within clumps of grass, and are often surrounded by dense stands of tabosagrass. (B430.w2, J469.442.w1)
  • Rarely, they use underground shelters - use of an abandoned Vulpes macrotis (Vulpes - (Genus)) den has been reported, also a young individal sheltered from a predator by using a burrow. (J469.442.w1)

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Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Notes

Specific Lepus callotis Information
  • This species is found from southern Mexico to southern New Mexico. (B51)
  • "North from Oaxaca, Mexico, along the Sierra Madre to Chihuahua and East Sonora." (B605.4.w4)
  • "...from southwestern New Mexico, near the Mexican border, through the southern half of the Mexican tableland. The range in the United States is restricted to about 120 square kilometers in southern Hidalgo County, New Mexico." (B430.w2)
  • Central Oaxaca in Mexico, north discontinuously to southwestern New Mexico, USA. (B607.w20)
  • "...extreme southwestern New Mexico, parts of northwestern and central Mexico." (B147)
  • Southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and Oaxaca, Mexico. (B285.w5c)
  • Lepus callotis callotis - found in central Mexico. (B430.w2)
  • Lepus callotis gaillardi - found from southwestern New Mexico to Coahuila, Mexico. (B430.w2)

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Conservation

Species variation

Notes

Specific Lepus callotis Information
Currently recognised subspecies include:
  • Lepus callotis callotis: (B430.w2, B607.w20) including Lepus callotis mexicanus, Lepus callotis nigricaudatus. (B607.w20)
  • Lepus callotis gaillardi: including Lepus callotis battyi. (B607.w20)

NB: names in non-bold font are reported as synonyms for that particular subspecies from the reference B607.w20.

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Conservation Status

Notes

WILD POPULATION - IMPORTANCE:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Classified as endangered in the USA. (B605.4.w4)
  • Rare. (B430.w2)
  • Populations are restricted to two valleys in Hidalgo Co., New Mexico. (B605.4.w4)
  • Population thought to have halved between 1976 and 1981. (B605.4.w4)
  • "Information on the status of the white-sided jackrabbit in Mexico is urgently needed." (B605.4.w4)
  • This species "...has been proposed for listing as a threatened or endangered species." (B430.w2)
  • Locally common but declining. (B285.w5c)

GENERAL LEGISLATION: --

CITES LISTING: --

RED-DATA LIST STATUS:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • IUCN - Lower Risk (near threatened). (W2.Apr08.w9)

THREATS:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

PEST STATUS / PEST POPULATIONS: --

CAPTIVE POPULATIONS: --

TRADE AND USE:

Specific Lepus callotis Information

  • Used as food by humans. (B430.w2)

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