Click to return to Contents - Rabbits and their Relatives
CONTENTS

Living OrganismsAnimalia / Craniata / Mammalia / Lagomorpha / Leporidae / Lepus / Species

Lepus peguensis - Burmese hare (Click photographs/illustrations for full picture & further details)

 

INDEX - INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE / MORPHOLOGY

LIFE STAGES / NATURAL DIET / PHYSIOLOGY

BEHAVIOUR

HABITAT & RANGE

CONSERVATION

Return to top of page

General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Lepus siamensis. (B51, B607.w20)
  • Lepus peguensis peguensis. (B605.4.w4)
  • Lepus peguensis siamensis. (B605.4.w4)
  • Lepus peguensis vassali. (B605.4.w4, B607.w20)

Names for new-borns / juveniles

  • Leveret. (B285.w5b)

Names for males

Names for females

Return to top of page

General Appearance

Adult:

General Information

  • All hares have well-furred feet. (B147)
  • "The upper parts of the body are usually brown or grayish brown, and the underparts are paler or white." (B147)
  • Some species of hare have black tips to their ears, and some have black fur on the upper side of their tail. (B147)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • This is a fairly small hare species. (B605.4.w4)
  • This species has a reddish gray back which is mixed with black. The rump is a greyer colour, and the underparts are white. The upperpart of the tail is black, whilst the underpart is white. (B605.4.w4) It has quite large ears with black tips. (B605.4.w4) The colour of the feet varies, "from white in the Burmese specimens to fulvous in those from Thailand." (B605.4.w4)

Newborn:

General Information

  • Lepus spp. leverets are furred at birth. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)

Similar Species

--

Sexual Dimorphism

--

Return to top of page

References

Species Authors & Referees

Author: Kathryn Pintus BSc MSc MSc (V.w115)

ORGANISATIONS

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

Return to top of page

Husbandry Information

Notes

  • --

Management Techniques

Return to top of page

Appearance / Morphology

Measurement & Weight

Notes

LENGTH
Adult:

General Lepus Information

  • 400-700 mm. (B147)
  • Males are usually smaller than females. (B147)
  • 40-76 cm. (B285.w5c)

Newborns: --

HEIGHT
Adults and sub-adults: --
Juveniles: --

WEIGHT
Adult:

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • This species weighs between 2.0-2.5 kg. (B605.4.w4)

Newborns: --

GROWTH RATE --

Return to top of page

Head and Neck

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general lagomorph and leporid information.

GENERAL HEAD STRUCTURE:
Adult:

General Information

  • All lagomorphs have large ears relative to their body size. (B285.w5a)
  • Almost all Lepus species have long ears. (B147)

Newborn: --

DENTITION:
Adult:

General Information

  • Rabbits and hares have a total of 28 teeth. (B285.w5a)
  • The lower tooth rows are closer together than the upper tooth rows. (B147)
  • Lagomorphs differ from rodents by having two pairs of upper incisors rather than just the one pair. The additional set of incisors are called peg teeth and are found directly behind the long pair in the upper jaw. (B147, B285.w5a, B605.1.w1)
  • At birth, lagomorphs actually have three pairs of upper incisors, but they quickly lose the outer incisor on each side. (B147)
  • The incisors are covered completely by enamel. (B147)
  • The upper incisors' roots are found in the skull's premaxillary bones. However, the length of the lower incisors' roots varies. (B147)
    • [Note: lagomorphs have teeth which grow throughout their lives. For this reason the portion of the teeth which is not exposed (not above the gum line) is strictly speaking not a "root"; however, it is sometimes convenient to describe it as a root.]
  • The first upper incisors have a straight cutting edge. (B147)
  • The peg teeth lack a cutting edge. (B147)

EYES:
Adult:

General Information

  • Lagomorph eyes are positioned such that they allow for good broad-field vision. (B285.w5a)
  • Hares and rabbits have large eyes which are adapted to both their crepuscular and nocturnal activity patterns. (B285.w5b)
  • Leporids have "large eyes to increase visual acuity in dim light." (B430.w2)

Newborn:

General Information 

  • Leverets are born with their eyes open. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)

Return to top of page

Legs, Spine and Tracks

Notes

General Information
  • All hares have well-furred feet. (B147)
  • Almost all Lepus species have large hind feet. (B147)

Return to top of page

Tail

Notes

General Lepus Information:

  • Leporids have a short tail. (B147)
  • 35-100 mm. (B147)
  • Average: 58 mm. (B430.w2)
  • Range: 48-76 mm. (B430.w2)
  • 3.5-12 cm. (B285.w5c)

Return to top of page

Skin / Coat / Pelage

Notes

Adult:

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • This species has a reddish gray back which is mixed with black. The rump is a greyer colour, and the underparts are white. The upperpart of the tail is black, whilst the underpart is white. (B605.4.w4)
  • The ears have obvious black tips. (B605.4.w4)

Adult Colour variations:

General Information 

  • Some Lepus species moult into a white winter pelage (B147, B605.4.w4), the timing of which depends upon the number of daylight hours. (B147)
  • "All species that turn white in winter undergo two molts per year. Some species that molt twice, however, do not have a white winter pelage." In these species, the winter pelage is grey, whereas the summer fur is brown. (B147)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • "The feet vary from white in the Burmese specimens to fulvous in those from Thailand." (B605.4.w4)

Newborn / Juvenile:

General Information

  • Lepus spp. leverets are furred at birth. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)

Return to top of page

Detailed Anatomy Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)

Notes

The details below are from general lagomorph, leporid and Lepus information.

Skull
  • Leporids have an arched skull with a slight constriction between the orbits. (B147)
  • Lepus species have a skull that is lighter than the skull of rabbit species. (B605.4.w4)
Female reproductive tract
  • Female Lepus spp. have three to five pairs of mammary glands, with an extensive mass of mammary tissue. (B147, B287)
Male reproductive tract
  • Males lack a baculum (B147)
  • Testes are in the scrotum located in front of the penis (B147)
Digestive system
  • The largest part of the digestive tract is the caecum; this has a capacity up to ten times that of the stomach. (B147)

Return to top of page

Life Stages / Natural Diet / Physiology

Life Stages

Notes

BREEDING SEASON:

General Information

  • The majority of Lepus species have a long breeding season. (B147)
  • Southern Lepus species breed throughout the year. (B285.w5c)
OESTRUS / OVULATION:

General Information

GESTATION / PREGNANCY:

General Information

  • Under adverse conditions (such as during climatic or social stress), female lagomorphs are able to resorb embryos. (B285.w5a)
  • It is thought that some lagomorph species are able to conceive a second litter even before the last young is born; this is known as superfetation. (B285.w5a)
  • Gestation for Lepus species varies, but can be up to 50 days. (B147,B285.w5c)
PARTURITION / BIRTH:

General Information

  • Leverets are precocial and are born into surface-depression forms. (B285.w5b)
  • Females give birth to their young in open areas, or in a shallow depression in the ground. (B147)
  • Leverets remain hidden within dense vegetation, and the female visits them in order to nurse them. (B147)
Neonatal / Development:

General Information

  • Leverets are precocial; they are born fully furred, with open eyes, and are able to move about soon after birth. (B147, B285.w5b, B287)
  • Young are only suckled briefly once every 24 hours. (B285.w5b)
  • Approximately three days after birth, leverets disperse to separate hiding locations. Leveret litter-mates will regroup for a brief suckling bout at a particular location at precisely defined intervals. Such regrouping often takes place around sunset. (B285.w5b)
LITTER SIZE:

General Information

  • The size of litters produced by leporids at northern latitudes tends to be greater than those produced by leporids at southern latitudes. (B430.w2)
  • Litter sizes in Lepus species range from one to nine offspring. (B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • Very little information is available on litter sizes, though litters with one embryo have been reported, as well as two females with two embryos and one litter of four young. (B605.4.w4)
TIME BETWEEN LITTERS / LITTERS PER YEAR:

General Information

  • The inter-birth interval in lagomorphs is reduced by the phenomenon of induced ovulation, and post-partum oestrus, which allows females to conceive immediately after she has given birth. (B285.w5a)
  • A female can produce up to three or four litters per year. (B430.w2)
LACTATION / MILK PRODUCTION:

General Information

  • Leporids only release milk once in every 24 hour period. (B285.w5b)
  • Leporid milk has a very high fat and protein content, and as such is highly nutritious. Although the lactation period is brief, the milk is pumped into the young at a high speed.(B285.w5b)
  • The lactation period has a duration of between 17 and 23 days. (B285.w5b)
SEXUAL MATURITY:

General Information

  • Most species of lagomorph reach sexual maturity relatively early. (B285.w5a)
  • Lepus young do not usually breed in their first year of life. (B147)
MALE SEASONAL VARIATION:

General Information

  • Testes are intra-abdominal outside the breeding season, descending into the scrotum during the breeding season. (B147)
LONGEVITY / MORTALITY:

General Information

  • Rabbits and hares in the wild live for less than a year on average; a maximum age of 12 years has been recorded in a couple of species. (B285.w5b)
  • "Only a minority of hares survive their first year in the wild, though survivors can reach 5 years; in captivity, hares can live to 6 or 7 years." (B285.w5c)

Return to top of page

Natural Diet

Notes

NATURAL DIET:

General Lepus Information

  • Hares mainly eat grasses and herbaceous plants, but do also feed on twigs, buds and bark. (B147)

  • Isolated cases have been reported of hares capturing and eating voles and young lagomorphs. (B147)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • There is no information available on the diet of this species. (B605.4.w4)

QUANTITY EATEN: --

STUDY METHODS: --

Return to top of page

Hibernation / Aestivation

Notes

--

Return to top of page

Haematology / Biochemistry

Notes

HAEMATOLOGY:--

BIOCHEMISTRY:--

Return to top of page

Detailed Physiology Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in WILDPro)

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general lagomorph and leporid information.

METABOLISM (TEMPERATURE): --

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (RESPIRATION): --

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (PULSE/HEART RATE): --

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM (FAECES AND GUT MOTILITY):

General Information

  • Lagomorphs have digestive systems which are adapted for processing large quantities of vegetation. (B285.w5a)
  • Lagomorphs are well adapted for obtaining the greatest possible value from their food. They produce two types of faecal material: moist pellets and dry pellets. The moist pellets are expelled and then eaten (a behaviour known as coprophagy (B285.w5a)); this is done with little or no chewing, and as a result the majority of the food passes through the digestive tract twice (this is thought to have the same function as 'chewing the cud' in ruminants). The dry faecal pellets are not eaten. (B147)

URINARY SYSTEM (URINE): --

CHROMOSOMES: 

  • All the Lepus species have 48 chromosomes. (B605.4.w4)

MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM: --

SPECIAL SENSES AND VOCALISATIONS:

General Information

  • All lagomorphs use scent products secreted from special glands. (B285.w5a) These glands are located under the chin and in the groin, and are believed to play a key role in sexual communication, as well as in signalling social status in some gregarious species. (B285.w5b)
  • Whereas pikas tend to be more vocal, rabbits and hares rely strongly on scent rather than sound as a means of communication. (B285.w5b)
  • High-pitched distress squeals are emitted by leporids when captured by a predator. (B285.w5b, B430.w2)
  • Hares communicate with each other by drumming their feet. (B147)
  • Deep grumbling has been reported in Lepus species, and shrill calls are emitted when the animal is in pain. (B285.w5c)
  • "When seeking the young for nursing, females call the young and are answered." (B147)

Return to top of page

Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general lagomorph information.
General Information
  • Lagomorphs are well adapted for obtaining the greatest possible value from their food. They produce two types of faecal material: moist pellets and dry pellets. The moist pellets are expelled and then eaten; this is done with little or no chewing, and as a result the majority of the food passes through the digestive tract twice (this is thought to have the same function as 'chewing the cud' in ruminants). The dry faecal pellets are not eaten. (B147)

Return to top of page

Parental Behaviour

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general leporid information.
General Information
  • Male leporids are not generally involved in care of the young. However, if adult females attack young leporids, males will intervene, a behaviour known as 'policing'. (B285.w5b)
  • Even maternal care of the young is not particularly prominent in leporids, hence this reproductive strategy is known as 'absentee parentism'. (B285.w5a)
  • Leporids demonstrate an unusual system of nursing; the young are suckled only briefly (often less than five minutes) just once every 24 hours. (B285.w5b)
  • It is thought that the lack of social contact between the mother and her young is a strategy which diminishes the chances of attracting the attention of predators. (B285.w5b)
  • The entrances to breeding tunnels are carefully re-sealed following each bout of suckling (B285.w5b)

Return to top of page

Social Behaviour / Territoriality / Predation / Learning

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general hare information.

SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR:

General Information

  • Hares are generally solitary animals, whereas rabbits are solitary to gregarious. (B430.w2)
  • With the exception of the mating season (B147), most Lepus species are solitary. (B147, B285.w5c)
  • Hares communicate with each other by drumming their feet. (B147)
Specific Lepus peguensis Information
  • No information on behaviour is available. (B605.4.w4)

PREDATION: --

PREDATOR AVOIDANCE: 

General Information

  • Hares will run out into open areas and use their speed in order to avoid predators. (B285.w5b, B605.4.w4)
  • Speeds of up to 72 km/h (45 mph) have been reported for hares. (B285.w5b)
  • "Instead of seeking cover, hares rely on their well-developed running ability to escape from danger: also on camouflage, by flattening on vegetation." (B285.w5c)

POPULATION DENSITIES:

General Lepus Information

  • Drastic, cyclic population density fluctuations occur in northern Lepus species. (B147)
  • Predator population cycles follow Lepus cycles; once predator populations have crashed, and vegetation has had the chance to regenerate, hare population numbers are able to start increasing once more. (B147)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • There is no information available on the population densities of this species. (B605.4.w4)
HOME RANGES AND DISTANCES TRAVELLED:

General Lepus Information

  • "Habitat type has a marked effect on home-range size within each species, but differences also occur between species." (B285.w5c)
  • Lepus species vary greatly in their home range sizes, with some species having home ranges of only 4-20 hectares, and others exceeding 300 hectares. (B285.w5c)
  • Areas within a couple of metres of forms may be defended, but home ranges often overlap, often with common feeding grounds. (B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • There is no information available on the home range of this species. (B605.4.w4)

TERRITORIALITY:

General Information

  • The majority of hares and rabbits are non-territorial; some hares occupy home ranges of up to 300 ha (740 acres). Ranges of individuals may overlap in favoured feeding grounds. (B285.w5b)

Return to top of page

Sexual Behaviour

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general lagomorph and Lepus information.
General Information
  • All lagomorphs use scent products secreted from special glands. (B285.w5a) These glands are located under the chin and in the groin, and are believed to play a key role in sexual communication, as well as in signalling social status in some gregarious species. (B285.w5b)
  • Male Lepus become bolder during the mating season, and engage in fights with other males, and pursue females. (B147)
  • Male Lepus fight by using boxing motions with their forefeet and kicking with their hind feet. (B147)
  • Males often bite and kick the females, often leading to serious injury. (B147)

Return to top of page

Activity Patterns, Self-grooming and Navigation

Notes

ACTIVITY PATTERNS: 

General Information

  • All the lagomorphs are terrestrial. (B147)

SELF-GROOMING: --

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM:

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • This species is nocturnal. (B605.4.w4)

SPEED OF MOVEMENT:

General Information 

  • Leporids can run at speeds of up to 80 km/hr. (B147)

NAVIGATION: --

Return to top of page

Habitat and Range

General Habitat Type

Notes

General Infomation
  • Most Lepus species live in open grassy habitats. (B147, B285.w5c)

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • Found in lowland areas, including dry wasteland and cleared land. (B605.4.w4)
  • Malaya and south Vietnam: found in sandy coastal country. (B605.4.w4)
  • Thailand: "...on forest clearings in lalang grass or around hill tribe villages." (B605.4.w4)

Return to top of page

Nests / Burrows / Shelters

Notes

Note: There is very little data specific to this species so the details below are from general Lepus information.
General Information
  • Hares tend to reside in caves or crevices in rocks. (B430.w2)
  • Lepus species do not usually dig burrows or live in them, favouring fleeing rather than hiding as a mode of escape. (B147)
  • The majority of hares rest underneath vegetation, generally lying within shallow dips in the ground (soil, snow or grass) known as 'forms'. (B147)
  • The majority of Lepus species live on the surface, but some do dig burrows or use tunnels and holes made by other animals. (B285.w5c)
  • Uses 'shelter forms' (small depressions within the ground or vegetation) to rest in during the day. Or may simply rest next to a plant. (B430.w2)

Return to top of page

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Notes

Specific Lepus peguensis Information
  • Found from Burma to Indochina and also in Hainan. (B51)
  • This species is found in central and southern Burma, eastwards from the Chindwin River valley through Thailand, as well as Cambodia, southern Laos and southern Vietnam. (B607.w20)
  • Found "...south in upper Malay Peninsula (Burma, Thailand) to 120EN." (B607.w20)
  • This species is found from Burma to Indochina and Hainan (China). (B285.w5c)
  • Found in Burma, Indochina and Thailand. (B147)
  • The three subspecies occur in different areas:
    • Lepus peguensis peguensis - "...occupies the valleys of the Irrawaddy, Chindwin and Salween rivers from about 22oN to Rangoon."
    • Lepus peguensis siamensis - in Thailand, this subspecies is found in areas of cleared forest, from Chiengmai to Bangkok, and southwards to 12oN in the Malay Peninsula. (B605.4.w4)
    • Lepus peguensis vassali - this subspecies is found in Cambodia, Laos and southern Vietnam, down to 225km south of Saigon. (B605.4.w4)

Return to top of page

Conservation

Species variation

Notes

Specific Lepus peguensis Information
Currently recognised subspecies include:
  • Lepus peguensis penguensis. (B607.w20)
    • Lepus peguensis siamensis (B605.4.w4) is now considered to be included in Lepus peguensis peguensis. (B607.w20)
  • Lepus peguensis vassali. (B605.4.w4, B607.w20)

Previously recognised subspecies include:

  • The Burmese hare is closely allied to the Lepus nigricollis - Indian hare. (B605.4.w4)
  • It has been suggested that "...peguensis might be conspecific with nigricollis because of its close resemblance to L.n.ruficaudatus. However, L.n.ruficaudatus appears to be allopatric with respect to peguensis in E India-W Burma." (B607.w20)
  • Formerly included hainanus [Lepus hainanus - Hainan hare]. (B607.w20)
  • "The three subspecies may be conspecific with Lepus peguensis and all may be included in L.nigricollis." (B605.4.w4)

Return to top of page

Conservation Status

Notes

WILD POPULATION - IMPORTANCE:

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • "This species is represented by fairly small populations isolated from each other by forest." (B605.4.w4)
  • As forests are cleared, more suitable habitat is created, and thus the range of this species may be expanding. (B605.4.w4)
  • Populations of this species do not appear to be threatened at this time, though further studies are required in order to learn more about behaviour, distribution and taxonomy. (B605.4.w4)

GENERAL LEGISLATION: --

CITES LISTING: --

RED-DATA LIST STATUS:

Specific Lepus peguensis Information

  • IUCN - Lower Risk (least concern). (W2.Apr08.w27)

THREATS: --

PEST STATUS / PEST POPULATIONS: --

CAPTIVE POPULATIONS: --

TRADE AND USE: --

Return to top of page