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Living OrganismsAnimalia / Craniata / Mammalia / Lagomorpha / Ochotonidae / Ochotona / Species

Ochotona macrotis - Large-eared pika (Click photographs/illustrations for full picture & further details)

 

INDEX - INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE / MORPHOLOGY

LIFE STAGES / NATURAL DIET / PHYSIOLOGY

BEHAVIOUR

HABITAT & RANGE

CONSERVATION

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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information
  • This pika has also been given the specific names of:
    • Ochotona auritus
    • Ochotona baltina
    • Ochotona chinensis
    • Ochotona griseus
    • Ochotona sacana
    • Ochotona sinensis (this name was apparently given in error according to one report)
    • Ochotona wollastoni

(B607.w20)

General pika information
  • The name pika originated from the Tungus of Siberia who attempted to mimic the call "peeka" of the local pika species. (B285.w5g)
  • The generic name of Ochotona is derived from the Mongolian name for pikas: "ogdoi". (B285.w5g)
  • Mouse hares or conies are alternative names for pikas. (B147)
  • "Pishchukha" is the Russian common name for all species of pika and some gerbils (Rhombomys opimus, Meriones tamareiscinus (Muridae - (Family)). (B605.3.w3)

Names for new-borns / juveniles

--

Names for males

--

Names for females

--

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General Appearance

Adult: 

General pika information

  • Pikas are small, egg shaped, rodent-like lagomorphs which weigh under 500 g. They have rounded, relatively large ears, short legs, and a very short tail which is hardly visible. (B285.w5g)
Specific Ochotona macrotis information
  • This pika has a brownish grey coat with an ochre tinge. The general greyish colour has a rufous tinge along the sides of the face, shoulders and also from the nose over the occiput; this is more marked during the summer while in winter the upperparts are pale grey tinged with a straw-yellow colour. The underside is white to dirty white in summer and winter. (B605.3.w3)

Newborn:

General pika information

  • Newborn pikas are helpless and naked (B147, B287) or slightly furred. (B287)

Similar Species

Specific Ochotona macrotis information
  • Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika is similar; Ochotona macrotis and Ochotona roylei are superficially similar. They can be differentiated by the following specific characteristics of Ochotona macrotis
    • The coat is paler than in Ochotona roylei.
    • the head and the front of Ochotona macrotis are tinged with a pale russet colour rather than the brilliant rufous brown colour of Ochotona roylei;
    • Ochotona macrotis is usually larger in size;
    • Ochotona macrotis has larger, broader ears with dense, long hairs inside;
    • Ochotona macrotis has well developed and symmetrical frontal foramina;
    • Ochotona macrotis has larger and wider tympanic bullae and a more highly arched skull.
    • During the winter season, in their area of sympatry, Ochotona macrotis is diurnally active whereas Ochotona roylei is usually crepuscular. (B605.3.w3)
    • Ochotona macrotis generally live at a higher elevation than Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika who are found in more mesic habitats, for example: rhododendron, spruce or deodar forests. 

(B605.3.w3)

Sexual Dimorphism

  • Male and female pikas are similar in size and can be difficult to tell apart from one another. (B147)

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References

Species Authors & Referees

Editor: Nikki Fox BVSc MRCVS (V.w103)

ORGANISATIONS

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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Husbandry Information

Notes

  • --

Management Techniques

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Appearance / Morphology

Measurement & Weight

Notes

Pikas are small mammals. (B285.w5g)

General pika information

LENGTH
Adult:

General pika information 

  • Pikas measure 120-300 mm. 
    • 120-285 mm. (B285.w5g)
    • 125-300 mm, with most species averaging around 200 mm or less. (B147)
  • Males and females are similar in size. (B147)

Newborns: --

HEIGHT
Adults and sub-adults: --
Juveniles: --

WEIGHT
Adult: 

General pika information

  • Pikas weigh 50-400 g
    • 50-350 g. (B285.w5g)
    • 125-400 g. (B147)

Newborns:

  • Newborn pikas weigh about 9 g. (B147)
    • Range 4.1 - 12.7 g, depending on species. (B287)

GROWTH RATE:--

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Head and Neck

Notes

GENERAL HEAD STRUCTURE:

Adult:

Skull

General pika information

  • In general, the head of pikas is blunt and short, and the skull is quite flattened rather than arched. There is also a constriction between the orbits. (B147)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • Ochotona macrotis has well developed and symmetrical frontal foramina. "There are usually two small (3 by 1.5 mm) oval foramina above and in front of the orbit at the anterior end of the frontal bones". (B605.3.w3)
  • In comparison to the similar species of Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika, Ochotona macrotis has larger, wider bullae and a more highly arched skull. (B605.3.w3)
Ears:

General pika information:

  • Pikas have small, rounded ears which are 12-36 mm in length. (B147; B285.w5g)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • The ears of Ochotona macrotis are larger and broader than that of the similar species of Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika and they have dense, long hair inside them. (B605.3.w3)
Nostrils: 
  • General pika information: Pikas can completely close their nostrils. (B147)
Vibrissae:
  • General pika information: These are longer in the rock dwelling pikas, such as this species, than that found in burrowing pikas. (B605.3.w3)
Newborn: --

DENTITION

General pika information
  • There are 26 teeth in total - two less than other lagomorphs who have one more upper molar on each side. (B285.w5a, B605.1.w1)
  • The dental formula of pikas is 2/1 incisors, 0/0 canines, 3/2 premolars, and 2/3 molars. (B147, B605.1.w1)

Incisors

  • Lagomorphs, including pikas, differ from rodents by having two pairs of upper incisors rather than just the one pair. The additional set of incisors are called peg teeth and are found directly behind the long pair in the upper jaw. (B147, B285.w5a, B605.1.w1)
  • At birth, lagomorphs actually have three pairs of upper incisors, but they quickly lose the outer incisor on each side. (B147)
  • The incisors are covered completely by enamel. (B147)
  • The upper incisors' roots are found in the skull's premaxillary bones. However, the length of the lower incisors' roots varies. (B147)
    • [Note: lagomorphs have teeth which grow throughout their lives. For this reason the portion of the teeth which is not exposed (not above the gum line) is strictly speaking not a "root"; however, it is sometimes convenient to describe it as a root.]
  • The first upper incisors have a cutting edge which is V-shaped. (B147)
  • The peg teeth lack a cutting edge. (B147)

Molars

  • Pikas have high crowned cheek teeth with no roots [the teeth grow continuously throughout life]. (B147)
  • The lower tooth rows are closer together than the upper tooth rows. (B147)

EYES:

General pika information

  • Adult: Pikas have eyes positioned to give a broad field of vision (B285.w5a)
  • Newborn: Neonates are blind; the eyes open at eight to ten days. (B287)

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Legs, Spine and Tracks

Notes

General pika information
  • Pikas have short legs. (B285.w5g)
  • The hindlimbs are just slightly longer than the forelimbs. (B147, B430.w2, B605.2.w2)
  • They have five digits on each foot. (B147)
  • The feet are heavily furred on the underside. (B147)
  • In rock dwelling pikas, such as this species, the claws are more curved and less powerful than those of the burrowing pikas. (B605.3.w3)

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Tail

Notes

General pika information
  • The tail of pikas is virtually absent at a length of 5 mm (B285.w5g); it is not visible. (B147; B430.w2)

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Skin / Coat / Pelage

Notes

Adult: 

General pika information
  • Fine, long, soft and dense coat with fur that covers the feet including the under surface. (B147, B285.w5g)
  • Most pikas are lighter ventrally than dorsally. (B285.w5g)
  • Most species have two moults per year with a brighter summer coat - often a yellowish red - and a greyer winter coat. (B147)
Specific Ochotona macrotis information
  • Brownish grey coat with an ochre tinge. It is a paler coat than that of the similar species of Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika. The general greyish colour has a rufous tinge along the sides of the face, shoulders and also from the nose over the occiput. This rufous tinge is more marked during the summer. The ventrum ranges from a white to a dirty white colour in summer and winter. In winter, the dorsum is a dense fluffy pale grey that is tinged with a straw-yellow colour. (B605.3.w3)

Adult Colour variations:

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

Newborn/Juvenile:

General pika information

  • Newborn pikas are hairless (B147, B287) or slightly furred. (B287)

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Detailed Anatomy Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)

Notes

Ochotona spp. general information:
  • Mammary glands:
    • Females have four or six mammary glands. (B147)
  • Female reproductive tract:
    • The uterus is duplex. The placenta is discoid, deciduate and hemochorial,with a mesometrial, superficial implantation. (B287)
  • Male reproductive tract:
    • Testes:
      • The testes are intra-abdominal outside the breeding season. (B147, B287)
      • During the breeding season they are found in folds of skin at the base of the penis. (B147)
    • Penis:
  • Scent glands: Pikas have scent glands, as do all lagomorphs. (B285.w5a)

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Life Stages / Natural Diet / Physiology

Life Stages

Notes

Notes: This species is a rock-dwelling pika rather than a burrowing pika. (B605.3.w3)

BREEDING SEASON:

General pika information

  • In general, pikas breed twice a year in the spring and summer, and many species will have 2 or more litters per year. (B147)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • In this species the breeding season has been reported to occur from April to August in Tersky-Alatau, USSR. (B287)

OESTRUS / OVULATION:

General pika information

GESTATION / PREGNANCY:

General pika information

  • Pikas have a short gestation period. (B285.w5a)
  • Embryo resorption may occur if the pika encounters adverse conditions. (B285.w5a)

PARTURITION / BIRTH: --

NEONATAL / DEVELOPMENT: --

LITTER SIZE:

General pika information

  • In general, rock dwelling pikas, such as this species, have litters that are half the size of those of the burrowing pikas. (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • The litter size of Ochotona macrotis is usually small with only two to three young in a litter. The results of two separate studies were (a) mean of five young with a range of three to seven; (b) range of one to four young. In extensive studies of the reproduction in this species, litter size was found to vary throughout its range and was higher in populations with increased mortality, a less constant population size and high dispersal. (B605.3.w3)
    • Ochotona macrotis macrotis from the uplands of Tien Shan had at least three litters per year, probably four in some cases. Average litter size was 5.8 (range four to eight); the mean litter size decreased from 6.2 in June to 4.9 in August. All females that were born in the first litters bred in their birth year, some producing two litters (mean 4.5 per litter, range of three to five young). (B605.3.w3)
    • Ochotona macrotis sacana in a population inhabiting talus near a spruce forest in the Terksey-Alatau Range had a mean of four young (range 2 - 6), with three litters per year; the mean litter size increased from the first litter (2.8) to the last litter (5.0). (B605.3.w3)

TIME BETWEEN LITTERS / LITTERS PER YEAR:

General pika information 

  • Rock dwelling pikas, such as this species, have few litters per year. They may have two litters annually but often only one is successfully weaned (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • Ochotona macrotis usually conceives two litters per year, but a population of Ochotona macrotis macrotis from the uplands of Tien Shan had at least three litters per year, probably four in some cases, and a population of Ochotona macrotis sacana produced three litters per year. (B605.3.w3)

LACTATION / MILK PRODUCTION: --

SEXUAL MATURITY:

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • Individuals first breed as yearlings in most populations of Ochotona macrotis. (B287; B605.3.w3)
    • Ochotona macrotis sacana: "Yearlings did not breed". (B605.3.w3)

MALE SEASONAL VARIATION:

General pika information

  • The testes are intra-abdominal outside the breeding season; during the breeding season they are found in folds of skin at the base of the penis (in lagomorphs, the testes are in front of the penis). (B147)

LONGEVITY / MORTALITY:

General pika information

  • In general, there is high mortality as pikas are prey for many mammals and birds. (B285.w5a)

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Natural Diet

Notes

NATURAL DIET:

General pika information

  • Pikas are herbivorous - they eat grasses, flowering stalks, and leaves. Pikas have a preference for those plants highest in protein or other chemicals important to them. (B285.w5g)

  • Pikas eat a range of vegetable matter: "in the summer and early autumn the animals gather grasses, sedges, weeds, and many of the large flowering and woody plants, sometimes climbing a few meters up in trees and out on limbs to cut twigs. The material is sometimes place in exposed locations for curing by the sun"; many populations create haystacks to store food for winter. (B147)

QUANTITY EATEN: --

STUDY METHODS: --

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Hibernation / Aestivation

Notes

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Haematology / Biochemistry

Notes

HAEMATOLOGY: --

BIOCHEMISTRY: --

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Detailed Physiology Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in WILDPro)

Notes

METABOLISM (TEMPERATURE): 

General pika information

  • Pikas have a high body temperature. (B285.w5g)

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (RESPIRATION): --

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (PULSE/HEART RATE): --

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM (FAECES AND GUT MOTILITY):

General pika information

  • Jaw motion: Pikas have a vertical or transverse jaw motion. (B147); pikas use a side-to-side jaw motion. (B285.w5g)
  • Coprophagy: Pikas produce two types of faeces, hard faeces like pepper seeds - small green spherical pellets - which are passed during the day; and soft faeces, sticky and dark green/black, passed at night. Faeces of the latter type have high a energy value and B vitamin levels, and are re-ingested. This behaviour, known as coprophagy, may have a similar function to the ruminant behaviour of chewing the cud. (B147, B285.w5a)

URINARY SYSTEM (URINE): --

CHROMOSOMES:

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • The diploid chromosome number is 62. (B605.3.w3)

MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM: --

SPECIAL SENSES AND VOCALISATIONS:

Vocalisations:

General pika information

  • Pikas are known to be more vocal than other lagomorphs. (B285.w5a)
  • Rock-dwelling pikas, such as this species, tend to have only two vocalisations: 
    • a short call which usually contains one or two note squeaks, used for announcing their presence or warning others of predators;
    • and a long call used by males during the breeding season which is "a series of squeaks lasting up to 30 seconds". 
      (B285.w5g)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • The calling behaviour of Ochotona macrotis is weak in comparison with most other species of pika. In the event of an alarm, it will utter three to four syllable calls while quickly escaping. (B285.w5g; B605.3.w3) These calls are similar to those of Ochotona rutila - Turkestan Red pika. In autumn, in dense populations, Ochotona macrotis utter occasional sharp whistles that may be answered by a similar call from a conspecific. (B605.3.w3)
  • "Kawamichi (1971a) stated that the lack of vocalizations in the large-eared pika is related to not having a haypile to defend. This comment does not correspond with data from other species, The Turkestan red pika [Ochotona rutila] stores large quantities of hay, but is more silent than the large-eared pika. The Afghan pika O. rufescens [Ochotona rufescens] is one of the most silent of the pikas and stores hay twice a year". (B605.3.w3)

Scent glands:

General pika information

  • Pikas have scent glands, as do all lagomorphs. (B285.w5a)
  • The two functions of scent marking are thought to be:
    • territory maintenance and possibly advertisement.
    • sexual advertisement leading on to mating.
      (B605.3.w3)

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Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Notes

General pika information
  • Pikas are unable to grasp plants with their forepaws; they eat with a side-to-side jaw motion and carry vegetation in their mouths. (B285.w5g)
Haying and foraging 
  • In spring, summer and/or autumn (fall) (depending on species/location) many pika species spend much time "haying" - harvesting mouthfuls of vegetation which are carried back to the den for storage. They build up these stores, resembling piles of hay, and use them for consumption during periods of sparse vegetation, often over-harvesting so that it is a rare occurrence for them to run out of food. (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3) 
  • Pika species living in areas where winter snow is common may also make tunnels in the snow to reach and harvest any nearby vegetation. (B285.w5g)
  • Some species continue to forage throughout winter rather than haying, because snows are uncommon. (B285.w5g)
  • Even at a fairly low population density of ten to twelve pikas per hectare, vegetation storage by pikas may be up to 30 kg per hectare. (B605.3.w3)

Ochotona macrotis specific information

  • Some populations of Ochotona macrotis do not construct haypiles for the winter because the lack of snow in their habitat allows for year round foraging. (B147; B285.w5g; B605.3.w3)

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Parental Behaviour

Notes

--

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Social Behaviour / Territoriality / Predation / Learning

Notes

Social

General pika information

  • The rock dwelling pikas are often relatively asocial.  (B605.3.w3)
  • It is rare that they interact and usually it is to repel an intruder if they do so. (B285.w5g)

  • Even in a pair of pikas which are contributing to a shared hay pile, they spend a large part of the day apart. (B285.w5g)

Territoriality

General pika information

  • Pikas are highly territorial lagomorphs; both sexes use scent marking and vocalisations to maintain territories. (B605.1.w1)
  • The rock-dwelling pikas have large territories defended by the individual (in North American species) or defended in pairs (Asian species). (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3)

  • The population density is low, at 5-25 per acre, and reasonably stable over a period of time. (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3)

    • Population densities of pikas in rocky areas do not usually reach more than 20 per hectare. (B147)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • This species of pika lives in family group territories that are controlled by pairs of breeding adults. No overlap was witnessed between adult females in one particular study; all territorial invasions were by males although this behaviour was reported to be infrequent. (B605.3.w3)
Population densities

General pika information

  • In general, the population density of rock dwelling pikas, such as this species, is usually low at 5-25 per acre, and reasonably stable over a period of time. (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3)

Specific Ochotona macrotis information 

  • In Ochotona macrotis, the population densities remain fairly constant in size over time although they may vary (range from six to eighteen animals per hectare) depending on the different locations. One study reported yearlings to make up 58% of the study population and some individuals lived to three years of age. (B605.3.w3)
Predation

General pika information

  • Pikas are prey for many birds and mammals. (B605.3.w3)

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Sexual Behaviour

Notes

General pika information

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Activity Patterns, Self-grooming and Navigation

Notes

ACTIVITY PATTERNS: 

General pika information
  • Pikas are agile and lively (B285.w5g)

SELF-GROOMING: --

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM:

 Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • During the winter season, in their area of sympatry, Ochotona macrotis is diurnally active whereas the Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika is usually crepuscular. (B605.3.w3)
    • This species is reported to bask in the midday sun because it lives at cooler elevations (above 4000 metres) than Ochotona roylei. (B285.w5g) 
  • General pika information
    • Pikas are mainly active by day. They are well-adapted to the cold and sensitive to even moderately warm conditions, therefore they tend to be active only during the cooler parts of the day. (B285.w5g)
    • Pikas may be active at all hours, in particular, early morning and evenings. It seems that they are less active on sunny days compared with cloudy days. (B147)
    • Pikas which live at high altitudes may be active all day, whereas pikas at warmer, lower altitudes emerge only in the morning and evening. (B285.w5g)
General pika information
  • Pikas are mainly active by day. They are well-adapted to the cold and sensitive to even moderately warm conditions, therefore they tend to be active only during the cooler parts of the day. (B285.w5g)
  • Pikas may be active at all hours, in particular, early morning and evenings. It seems that they are less active on sunny days compared with cloudy days. (B147)
  • Pikas which live at high altitudes may be active all day, whereas pikas at warmer, lower altitudes emerge only in the morning and evening. (B285.w5g)

SPEED OF MOVEMENT: --

NAVIGATION: --

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Habitat and Range

General Habitat Type

Notes

Specific Ochotona macrotis information
  • Ochotona macrotis is a high altitude rock-dwelling pika that inhabits stationary rock scree in open alpine areas and also within spruce forests. 
  • "The alpine desert in the Pamir, Tien Shan, Kunlun and other ranges inhabited by large-eared pikas is apparently lacking in snow cover most of the year". 
  • Ochotona macrotis generally live at a higher elevation than Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika who are found in more mesic habitats, for example: rhododendron, spruce or deodar forests. 

(B605.3.w3)

General pika information

  • In general, most pikas live in remote high mountains and wild country and are well adapted to the cold. Pikas have become well adapted to living in rocky steppe and alpine habitats. (B285.w5g, B605.3.w3)
  • Some species inhabit moist forest areas, living under stumps of trees or fallen logs. (B147)

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Nests / Burrows / Shelters

Notes

Specific Ochotona macrotis information
  • Ochotona macrotis is a rock-dwelling pika or "a talus inhabitant". (B605.3.w3)

General pika information

  • Rock dwelling pikas nest among rocks or fallen logs. (B285.w5g)

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Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Notes

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • Pamir mountains and western Tien Shan mountains (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and southeast Kazakhstan)

  • The Hindu Kush in northeastern Afghanistan

  • Karakoram range in Pakistan

  • Himalayan Mountains: northern India; northern Nepal; Bhutan; adjacent Xizang in China

  • The Kunlun and associated ranges across central western China: Xizang, Xinjiang, Qinghai; and westward into the high mountain ranges of the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in China.

(B285.w5i; B605.3.w3; B607.w20)

Altitudinal range
  • 2500 - 4000 metres to as high as 6130 metres. (B605.3.w3)
Sympatric with:

(B605.3.w3)

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Conservation

Species variation

Notes

Currently recognised subspecies include:
  • Ochotona macrotis auritus; also known as Ochotona macrotis baltina
  • Ochotona macrotis chinensis; also known as Ochotona macrotis sinensis
  • Ochotona macrotis macrotis; also known as Ochotona macrotis griseus
  • Ochotona macrotis sacana
  • Ochotona macrotis wollastoni

(B607.w20)

NB: names in non-bold font are reported as synonyms for that particular subspecies from the reference B607.w20.

However, in reference to the forms Ochotona macrotis baltina, Ochotona macrotis chinensis, Ochotona macrotis sacana and Ochotona macrotis wollastoni another reference states: "all of these named subspecies are conspecific. All share the characteristics of macrotis". (B605.3.w3)

Formerly included as a subspecies of:
  • Ochotona roylei - Royle's pika but now recognised as a distinct species on the basis of ecological and morphological differences between the two species in their area of sympatry. (B605.3.w3, B607.w20)
    • The forms baltina and chinensis have occasionally been assigned to Ochotona roylei but have since been reassigned to Ochotona macrotis on the basis of studies of their holotypes. (B605.3.w3)

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Conservation Status

Notes

WILD POPULATION - IMPORTANCE:

General pika information

Pikas are important for the following reasons:

  • They act as prey for many birds and mammals. 
  • Haypiles created by pikas may provide winter food for domestic cows and horses and also native species such as ungulates or smaller herbivores.

(B605.3.w3)

GENERAL LEGISLATION:

  • "Currently no species or forms of Ochotona are treated on any national list of endangered or threatened wildlife." (B605.3.w3)

CITES LISTING: 

  • There are currently no Ochotona species CITES-listed. (W354.April08.w1)

RED-DATA LIST STATUS:

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • IUCN - Lower risk/least concern. (W2.Apr08.w54)

THREATS:

Specific Ochotona macrotis information

  • At the present time there are no known threats to the abundance or distribution of Ochotona macrotis throughout its range. (B605.3.w3)

General pika information

  • In general, the status of many species of pika is hard to assess because they inhabit such remote areas. (B285.w5g)
  • Many species of pika inhabit very restricted ranges and so may be threatened by human environmental disruption. (B147)

PEST STATUS / PEST POPULATIONS:

General pika information

  • Due to their remote habitat, most pikas "rarely come into conflict with human economic activity." (B147)

CAPTIVE POPULATIONS: --

TRADE AND USE: --

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