Living Organisms / Animalia / Craniata / Mammalia / Rodentia / Muridae / Apodemus / Species
Apodemus flavicollis - Yellow-necked mouse (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Mulot collier (French)
  • Gelbhaulsmaus (German)

Alternative species names (the second part of the binomial species names): [Genus] brauneri; [Genus] cellarius; [Genus] dietzi; [Genus] fennicus; [Genus] geminae; [Genus] princeps; [Genus] saturatus;  [Genus] wintoni (B141).

Names for new-borns / juveniles

Names for males  
Names for females  

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General Appearance

Typical mouse with pointed muzzle, large protruding eyes, large rounded ears and long tail. Yellow-brown back, pale grey underside, broad yellow collar on chest (B142, D30).

Similar Species

  • Differentiated from voles by long tail, pointed muzzle, large eyes and ears.
  • Differentiated from shrews by less pointed muzzle, large eyes and ears, longer tail
  • Differentiated from Mus musculus - House mouse by fur colour (yellow-brown rather than grey). Juveniles differentiated by larger eyes and ears and larger hind feet.
  • Differentiated from Micromys minutus - Harvest mouse by larger size, larger eyes and ears, more pointed muzzle.
  • Differentiated from Apodemus sylvaticus - Wood mouse by broad yellow "collar" of fur on chest, reaching to brown fur of back

(B142, D30).

Sexual Dimorphism --

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Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

Husbandry references:

(UK Contacts)

(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

  • Mice (Rodents)

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

  • Mice (Rodents)

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Husbandry Information


Individual Techniques linked in Wildpro

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Appearance / Morphology

Measurement & Weight

  • Head-body length: 95-120mm (D30).
  • Males 95-120 mean 103.8mm. Females 96-114 mean 103.6mm (B142).
Height --
Adult weight General --
Male --
Female --
New-born weight Average 2.8g (B142); 2.5g (B147).
Growth rate --

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General --



Ears: Male 17-19mm, female 18-19mm mean 18.2mm (B142).

Dentition (Teeth) --
Eyes --

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Legs and Tracks

Hind foot length: male 23-24mm, female 22-24mm (B142).

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  • Generally longer than head-body length.
  • Moderately haired.
  • Dorsal darker than ventral.
  • Length: males 98-113 mean 106mm, females 77-119 mean 98.2mm (B142).

(B142, B147, D30)

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Coat / Pelage

Adult Female
  • Dorsal rich orange-brown or yellow-brown
  • Ventral pale grey-white, with chest collar yellow, reaching up to meet darker dorsal fur.

(B142, D30)

Variations (If present) Continental Europe: extent of yellow on chest variable (B142).
Moult Post-juvenile moult (B142).
New-born / Juvenile Juvenile: more grey, including still-visible chest collar (B142).

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Neonate (New-born) Characteristics

Naked, blind (B142).

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Detailed Anatomy Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)


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Life Stages / Natural Diet / Physiology

Reproductive Stages

Breeding Season
  • Pregnancies February to October (B142).
Oestrus / Ovulation --
Gestation / Pregnancy
Parturition / Birth --
Neonatal development
  • Birth: naked, blind
  • 13-16 days: eyes open
  • 14 days: juvenile coat developed, yellow-grey collar visible
  • Three weeks: weaned

(B142, B147)

Litter size
Time between Litters / Litters per year --
Lactation / Milk Production --
Sexual Maturity
  • Minimum 2-3 months for spring born, females by 10g, males by 20g, but for autumn born individuals not until following spring (B142).
  • Two months (B147).
  • Few to more than one year (B142).

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Natural Diet

  • Seeds, green plants, fruits, fungi, invertebrates (e.g. caterpillars, centipedes, various arthropods and their larvae, worms).
  • Exceptionally, vertebrates such as frogs.


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Detailed Physiology Notes
(Summary information provided for pertinent species-specific data cross-referenced in Wildpro)

Temperature --
Pulse --
Respiration --
Faeces --
Haematology / Biochemistry --
Chromosomes --
Other --

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Feeding Behaviour

  • Store food such as seeds, nuts, invertebrates in burrows.


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Parental Behaviour


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Social Behaviour / Territoriality

  • May be formation of groups in autumn/winter.
  • Size of home ranges varies
  • Usually less than 0.5 hectares
  • Males' home ranges generally larger than females'.
  • Overlap of home ranges between and within sexes
  • Less aggressive than wood mice.
  • Residents aggressive towards transients.


Inter-specific --

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Sexual Behaviour

  • May be polygynous or promiscuous (B142).

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Predation in Wild


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Activity Patterns

  • May climb trees more than wood mice.
  • Both sexes move, with up to 1200m movement recorded.
  • Spend much time within extensive burrow systems.


Circadian Nocturnal (B226)

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Habitat and Range

General Habitat Type

  • Mature deciduous woods, particularly drier areas, long-established woodlands (B142).
  • Also other deciduous forest, mixed forest, and (marginal habitats) hedges, rural gardens, rural buildings.

(B142, B143)

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Nests / Burrows / Shelters

  • Extensive burrow systems.
  • Mainly within 50cm of surface, but may descend to 150cm.
  • Nests: layers of leaves, mainly built in breeding season.
  • Females build more substantial nests than do males.
  • Several nests may be used by one mouse.


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Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

  • Western Palearctic including Europe and Near East (B143); Europe, Asia Minor (B51).
  • In Europe: range extends further north than for Apodemus sylvaticus - wood mouse. Reaches 64N in Finland and Sweden and range eastward to Urals. Not found western France, most of Iberian Peninsula. Found on some Adriatic and Aegean islands
  • In Britain: southern Britain.
  • Not found: Iceland, Ireland, Balearics, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Cyprus.

(B51, B142, B143)

Occasional and Accidental --


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Intraspecific variation

Average size smaller in south and east, and chest (pectoral collar) may be incomplete (B143).

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Conservation Status

Wild Population -

In Britain: native, locally common, but probably declining in range and abundance in recent years. Pre-breeding population estimate of about 750,000, including 662,500 in England, 0 in Scotland, 87,500 in Wales. Population estimate was "based on a very limited amount of information for the species" although additional knowledge "may not necessarily have made a substantial difference to the estimate". (B221)

General Legislation --
CITES listing --
Red-data book listing --
Threats Habitat loss and fragmentation (particularly ancient woodlands) (B221).
Captive Populations --
Trade --

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