Animalia / Mandulibulata / Hexapoda / Diptera / Culicidae / Anopheles / Species:

Anopheles barberi:

INDEX - INFORMATION AVAILABLE

The information in subject headings below is of a general nature on mosquitoes, and Anopheles genus. Species specific information is only added where available/appropriate. For this species information has been added in the sections marked *.

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE

LIFE CYCLE

ENVIRONMENT

STATUS

 
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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Alternative scientific names for species

 

Common names for species / adults

Anopheline Mosquito

Names for other life stages

  • Larval stages may be referred to as instars.
  • Pupae may be called Tumblers.

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General Appearance and Characteristics

  • Small species (B505).
  • Described as ornithophilic (preferring to feed on birds) (Information source not published - taken from website W170)

Similar Species

--
Sexual Dimorphism --

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Associated Diseases
(Information on this species has been added specifically to support the "West Nile Virus" Wildpro volume.
Information on other diseases for which this species is a vector will be fully researched and added in due course.)

Linked Diseases

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References

Species Author

Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6)

Species Editor

Debra Bourne (V.w5)

References

B24, B46, B73, B502, B503, B504, B505, D70, P39.3.w4

ORGANISATIONS
(USA Contacts)

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Population Management / Control

Notes

--

Management Techniques

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Appearance

Egg

Shape

  • Elongate, oval and usually pointed at one end. (D70)
  • Boat-shaped. (B24, B46)

Size

  • Length 0.5 mm (average). (D70)
Colour
  • --
Egg wall
  • Have a pair of lateral "floats" and a frilled edge. (B24, D70)

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Larva

GENERAL CULICIDAE INFORMATION

Shape

  • --

Size

  • --
Colour
  • --
Detailed anatomical comments
  • Anopheline larvae
    • have float (palmate - divided from a common centre) hairs on dorsal surface of some of the abdominal segments. (B24, D70)
    • the respiratory apparatus on the eighth segment consists of a spiracular plate with two spiracular openings. (D70)
    • do not have a breathing tube. (B503)

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Pupa

Shape

  • --

Size

  • Small species (B505).
Colour
  • Shiny, black appearance (B505).
Detailed anatomical comments
  • --

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Adult

Male characteristics (if different from above)

Shape

  • In Anopheline Mosquitoes the resting position of abdomen is directed away from the resting surface, i.e. the proboscis and abdomen are in a straight line (some species seem almost to "stand on their heads"). (B24, B503)

Size

  • This species is of small size (B505).

Colour

  • --

Detailed Anatomical Comments

HEAD
  • In Anophelines - the palpi of the both sexes are about as long as the proboscis, while those of the male are enlarged at the tip (clubbed). (B24, B503, D70)

THORAX

  • In Anophelines
    • the scutellum (posterior part of the back of the thorax of the insect) is trilobed. (B24, B503)
    • Anopheles (Genus) usually have spotted wings (due to different coloured scales on the wings). (B503)

ABDOMEN

  • North American species of Anopheles (Genus) usually have no scales on the upper surface of the abdomen. (D70)

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Life Cycle

Egg production and development

Oviposition (place and type of egg-laying)
Time to hatching
Number of broods
  •  

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Larval Development / Natural Diet / Behaviour

Natural Diet
Physiological Requirements Temperature

Food supplies:

Respiration:

Predation in the wild
  • Fish, insects. (D70)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
  • The larvae usually dive when disturbed but soon rise to the surface where they can be easily seen because of shiny black appearance (B505)
  • Young stages of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can be transferred to new areas by water flowing intermittently. (B24)
  • Too much rain can wash away the larvae and decrease the number of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family), unless pools remain afterwards. (B24)
  • Generally, Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) larvae can rest just beneath the surface without effort; certain non-wetting structures suspend the larvae from the water surface film. (D70)
  • Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) larvae move in two ways, by:
    • jerks of the body. (D70)
    • propulsion with the mouth brushes. (D70)
  • Anopheline mosquitoes generally move by jerks of the body. (D70)
  • Anopheline larvae tend to lie parallel to the surface suspended from the water surface by the spiracular plate and palmate (divided from a common centre) hairs. (B24, B503, D70)
  • Anopheline larvae feed on the surface of the water. (B24)

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Pupal Development

  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae are aquatic and motile, using paddle-like, oval extensions attached terminally to the abdomen to move up and down in the water. (B46, D70).
  • The pupal stage for Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) is usually short: a few hours may be sufficient for certain dry climate species, but more normally ranges from two days in the tropics but can be more than several weeks in temperate regions. (B46, B504, D70)
  • No Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupa is known to overwinter as a pupa. (D70)
  • The Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupa release the adult through a hole / split in back (dorsum) of the pupal cuticle (tegument) as the pupal case floats on the surface of the water. The wings are fully expanded and hardened after about 24 hours and the mosquito is then soon able to fly. (B46, B504, D70)
Natural Diet
Physiological Requirements Respiration
Predation in the wild
  • Probably - fish, insects. (D70)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae are motile, using paddle-like, oval extensions attached terminally to the abdomen to move up and down in the water. (B46, D70).
  • Most Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae tend to be lighter than water due to an air space between the wing cases on the underside of the cephalothorax. (D70)
  • Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae can move about with considerable speed by vigorous movement of the abdomen, tending to rise directly to the surface when movement stops although they tend to be not quite as active as the larvae. (B24, D70)

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Adult Reproduction / Physiology / Natural Diet / Behaviour

  •  
Natural Diet
  • Described as ornithophilic (preferring to feed on birds) (Information source not published - taken from website W170)
  • Most Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species have a generally preferred group of hosts (e.g. birds, mammals, amphibians), but host preference can vary seasonally and often depends on availability. (V.w50)
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species of veterinary and medical importance normally feed on blood and many species require a blood feed in order to lay eggs (other species of mosquitoes feed only on plants and these are usually of little interest as disease vectors or pests. B504); the protein is necessary for the maturation of ovaries. This cycle requires two or more days for the female to digest the blood, lay a batch of eggs, then seek another blood meal; the cycle can be repeated many times in a female's life. (B24, B504, D70)
  • When Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) females feed, a tube is formed by the proboscis and the stylets penetrate the skin of the animal and form a small duct through which saliva is injected into the wound; they also act as a canal through which liquid food is ingested. (B46, D70)
  • Adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can be fed on fruit juices and sugar water, and males normally feed on a similar diet in the wild. (B24)
  • Adult male Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) (and occasionally the females) feed on nectar and other plant juices. (B24, B503)
  • female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can bite through clothing. (B46)
Predation in the wild --
Reproduction and Life-span
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
Detailed Physiological Comments
  • The antennae of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are believed to to used for hearing and smelling. (D70)
  • Two small knobbed structures (halteres) vibrate rapidly whilst the mosquito is in flight and serve as organs of equilibrium. (D70)

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Environment

General Habitat type (Biogeographical / Climate Type)

  • The larvae of this species are reported to be found in and around woodlands: in rot cavities in trees of many kinds, in stumpholes, and occasionally in artificial containers (e.g. wooden tubs and tin cans). (B505).
  • Adults have occasionally been found resting underneath bridges, in culverts, during the daytime, and in buildings that are in/near wooded areas. (B505)
Typical USA Mosquito Habitats

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Microhabitat (Egg, Larvae, Pupae, Adult)

Egg Temperature

Humidity

Larva

Light:

Pupa
Adult
  • Hibernation / aestivation sites of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) females are usually relatively dark conditions with an even temperature, such as cellars, barns and lofts under thatched roofs. (B24)

Light:

  • Both sexes of this species are attracted to artificial light, but males more often than females tend to be caught in light traps (B505).
  • Adults have occasionally been found resting during the daytime (B505).
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are active at night and tend to hide in dark corners during the day and also during aestivation / hibernation. (B24)

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Geographical Distribution, Migration etc.

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Status

Intra-specific variation (subspeciation)

 

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Conservation / Pest / Legal Status

  • It is reported that the female of this species is a persistent biter and enters houses readily (B505).
  • The feeding behaviour of the female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) may cause great nuisance to their host species and bites can be painful and may become secondarily infected. (B24, B46, V.w6)

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