Animalia / Mandulibulata / Hexapoda / Diptera / Culicidae / Anopheles / Species:

Anopheles quadrimaculatus - Common malaria mosquito:

INDEX - INFORMATION AVAILABLE

The information in subject headings below is of a general nature on mosquitoes, and Anopheles genus. Species specific information is only added where available/appropriate. For this species information has been added in the sections marked *.

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE

LIFE CYCLE

ENVIRONMENT

STATUS

 
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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Alternative scientific names for species

  • Anopheles guttulatus, Anopheles annulimanus (B505).

Common names for species / adults

Anopheline Mosquito

Names for other life stages

  • Larval stages may be referred to as instars.
  • Pupae may be called Tumblers.

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General Appearance and Characteristics

  • Medium-sized species (B505).
  • The number of generations of this species varies in different regions; from 7 to 10 has been reported (B505).
  • Described as mammalophilic (preferring to feed on mammals) (Information source not published - taken from website W170).
  • Generally, in favourable conditions, the time required for development of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) varies from about 7 to 16 days. (B24)

Similar Species

--
Sexual Dimorphism --

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Associated Diseases
(Information on this species has been added specifically to support the "West Nile Virus" Wildpro volume.
Information on other diseases for which this species is a vector will be fully researched and added in due course.)

Linked Diseases

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References

Species Author

Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6)

Species Editor

Debra Bourne (V.w5)

References

B24, B46, B73, B502, B503, B504, B505, D70

ORGANISATIONS
(USA Contacts)

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Population Management / Control

Notes

--

Management Techniques

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Appearance

Egg

Shape

  • Elongate, oval and usually pointed at one end. (D70)
  • Boat-shaped. (B24, B46)

Size

  • Length 0.5 mm (average). (D70)
Colour
  • --
Egg wall
  • Have a pair of lateral "floats" and a frilled edge. (B24, D70)

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Larva

GENERAL CULICIDAE INFORMATION

Shape

  • --

Size

  • --
Colour
  • --
Detailed anatomical comments
  • Anopheline larvae
    • have float (palmate - divided from a common centre) hairs on dorsal surface of some of the abdominal segments. (B24, D70)
    • the respiratory apparatus on the eighth segment consists of a spiracular plate with two spiracular openings. (D70)
    • do not have a breathing tube. (B503)

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Pupa

Shape

  • --

Size

  • --
Colour
  • --
Detailed anatomical comments
  • --

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Adult

Male characteristics (if different from above)

Shape

  • In Anopheline Mosquitoes the resting position of abdomen is directed away from the resting surface, i.e. the proboscis and abdomen are in a straight line (some species seem almost to "stand on their heads"). (B24, B503)

Size

  • Medium-sized species (B505).

Colour

  • --

Detailed Anatomical Comments

HEAD
  • In Anophelines- the palpi of the both sexes are about as long as the proboscis, while those of the male are enlarged at the tip (clubbed). (B24, B503, D70)

THORAX

  • In Anophelines
    • the scutellum (posterior part of the back of the thorax of the insect) is trilobed. (B24, B503)
    • Anopheles (Genus) usually have spotted wings (due to different coloured scales on the wings). (B503)

ABDOMEN

  • North American species of Anopheles (Genus) usually have no scales on the upper surface of the abdomen. (D70)

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Life Cycle

Egg production and development

Oviposition (place and type of egg-laying)
  • Eggs of this species are deposited singly on the surface of the water, and tend to be arranged in rather definite patterns (B505).
  • In the laboratory, each batch varied from 194 to 263 eggs (B505).
  • Anopheline eggs are laid singly on the water surface. (D70)
Time to hatching
Number of broods
  •  

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Larval Development / Natural Diet / Behaviour

Natural Diet
  • The larvae of this species feed almost entirely on small organisms at the water surface; they do not seem to make any selection of the food and any material small enough to be swept into the mouth by the brushes is ingested. It is suggested that flagellates, diatoms and green algae (which make up a large proportion of the surface plankton in that area) are the principle diet of the larvae. (B505).
  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) larvae generally strain out small aquatic organisms, algae and particles of plant and animal material as food. (D70)
Physiological Requirements Temperature

Food supplies:

Respiration:

Predation in the wild
  • Fish, insects. (D70)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns

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Pupal Development

  • The pupal period of this species is reported to very from 2 to 6 days (B505).
  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae are aquatic and motile, using paddle-like, oval extensions attached terminally to the abdomen to move up and down in the water. (B46, D70).
  • The pupal stage for Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) is usually short: a few hours may be sufficient for certain dry climate species, but more normally ranges from two days in the tropics but can be more than several weeks in temperate regions. (B46, B504, D70)
  • No Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupa is known to overwinter as a pupa. (D70)
  • The Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupa release the adult through a hole / split in back (dorsum) of the pupal cuticle (tegument) as the pupal case floats on the surface of the water. The wings are fully expanded and hardened after about 24 hours and the mosquito is then soon able to fly. (B46, B504, D70)
Natural Diet
Physiological Requirements Respiration
Predation in the wild
  • Probably - fish, insects. (D70)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae are motile, using paddle-like, oval extensions attached terminally to the abdomen to move up and down in the water. (B46, D70).
  • Most Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae tend to be lighter than water due to an air space between the wing cases on the underside of the cephalothorax. (D70)
  • Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae can move about with considerable speed by vigorous movement of the abdomen, tending to rise directly to the surface when movement stops although they tend to be not quite as active as the larvae. (B24, D70)

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Adult Reproduction / Physiology / Natural Diet / Behaviour

  • The number of generations of this species varies in different regions; from 7 to 10 has been reported (B505).
Natural Diet
  • Described as mammalophilic (preferring to feed on mammals) (Information source not published - taken from website W170).
  • Most Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species have a generally preferred group of hosts (e.g. birds, mammals, amphibians), but host preference can vary seasonally and often depends on availability. (V.w55)
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species of veterinary and medical importance normally feed on blood and many species require a blood feed in order to lay eggs (other species of mosquitoes feed only on plants and these are usually of little interest as disease vectors or pests. B504); the protein is necessary for the maturation of ovaries. This cycle requires two or more days for the female to digest the blood, lay a batch of eggs, then seek another blood meal; the cycle can be repeated many times in a female's life. (B24, B504, D70)
  • When Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) females feed, a tube is formed by the proboscis and the stylets penetrate the skin of the animal and form a small duct through which saliva is injected into the wound; they also act as a canal through which liquid food is ingested. (B46, D70)
  • Adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can be fed on fruit juices and sugar water, and males normally feed on a similar diet in the wild. (B24)
  • Adult male Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) (and occasionally the females) feed on nectar and other plant juices. (B24, B503)
  • female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can bite through clothing. (B46)
Predation in the wild --
Reproduction and Life-span
  • If blood meals were made available, oviposition of this species has been recorded in the laboratory about three days after emergence (B505).
  • In the laboratory, each female of this species laid from 9 to 12 batches of eggs in her lifetime, and each batch varied from 194 to 263 eggs (B505).
  • Flagellum of spermatozoa of Hexapoda has microtubule arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2. (B502)
  • The male Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) usually emerge first. (D70)
  • Only one mating by the females Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) is generally required to fertilise her lifetime egg production. (D70)
  • The life-span of adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) is not well known; some species apparently live one or two months during summer, whereas adults that hibernate can live for six months or more. (D70)
  • Approximately equal number of male and female Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are produced. (D70)
  • Although the life span of adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) is usually short, females that are too late to lay due to environmental conditions, may either hibernate or aestivate until the following season. (B24)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
  • Females of this species are active feeders on man and on wild and domestic animals (B505).
  • Adults of this species are active principally at night and rest in dark corners in buildings, underneath houses, in stables, in hollow trees, and other shelters during daylight hours. They are very active just after dusk and during the remainder of the night their activities are thought to be limited mostly to flights in search of blood meal, except for another active period at dawn when they shift to daytime resting places (B505).
  • For this species, the effective flight range often varies, probably depending to some extent on the proximity of suitable hosts upon which the female can feed, and the number of adults produced in an area. It is usually recorded as 1 mile or less, under average conditions; however, much longer flights have been recorded by the recapture of marked specimens (B505).
  • It has been reported for this species that for males and females in small rearing cages, they mate in flight, usually falling to the floor of the cage and separating after about 10 to 15 seconds (B505).
  • The feeding behaviour of the female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) may cause great nuisance to their host species and bites can be painful and may become secondarily infected. (B24, B46, V.w6)
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) tend to hide in dark corners (hollow trees, culverts etc.) during the day and may use these as hibernacula. (B24, B46, B503)
  • female Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) tend to live longer and travel greater distances than the male. (D70)
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) seem to be attracted by skin warmth. (B24)
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are usually active at night (nocturnal feeders), in twilight hours or in dense shade, although some species may feed entirely during the day. (B24, B46, B503, D70)
  • Adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) may fly fair distances, varying between different species, and may be carried by the wind, or travel in a number of stages. They can also travel in vehicles. (B24)
Detailed Physiological Comments
  • the antennae of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are believed to be used for hearing and smelling. (D70)
  • Two small knobbed structures (halteres) vibrate rapidly whilst the mosquito is in flight and serve as organs of equilibrium. (D70)

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Environment

General Habitat type (Biogeographical / Climate Type)

  • Larvae of this species are found in permanent fresh water in sluggish streams, canals, ponds, and lakes containing surface-growing or emergent vegetation or floating debris (only occasionally are the deposited in pools of temporary natures) (B505).
Typical USA Mosquito Habitats

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Microhabitat (Egg, Larvae, Pupae, Adult)

Egg Temperature

Humidity

Larva

Light:

Pupa
Adult
  • Adults of this species are active principally at night and rest in dark corners in buildings, underneath houses, in stables, in hollow trees, and other shelters during daylight hours (B505).
  • Females of this species have been recorded overwintering (B505).
  • Hibernation / aestivation sites of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) females are usually relatively dark conditions with an even temperature, such as cellars, barns and lofts under thatched roofs. (B24)

Light:

  • Females of this species do not usually feed during the daytime, but they will seek blood meals in the early spring, after coming out of hibernation, and occasionally in dark buildings and on cloudy days (B505).
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are active at night and tend to hide in dark corners during the day and also during aestivation / hibernation. (B24)

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Geographical Distribution, Migration etc.

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Status

Intra-specific variation (subspeciation)

  • Hybridization between Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles freeborni, under laboratory conditions has been reported (B505).

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Conservation / Pest / Legal Status

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