Living Organisms / Monera (Bacteria) / Bacteria with Gram negative staining cell-walls / Genus:

Bacterial genera and types to have Wildpro links
Morphology and Staining
Genera "type species"

Bacterial Species to have Wildpro links

Members of this genus are cyanobacteria ("blue-green alga" - oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria) and have been recorded as as cause of Blue-green Algal toxicosis due to pronounced growth "water bloom" (particularly when the water is fertile and there is accelerated eutrophication) and the release of either hepatotoxins or neurotoxins (Blue-Green Algae Toxins)(B15). Some cyanobacteria may become buoyant in certain conditions and form dense floating mats on the water surface.

Information on the cyanobacteria is held only at Genus level.

Nostoc species occur as amorphous sheets or masses of gel-bound trichomes in freshwater or in moist terrestrial locations. They are known to form thick soft mats in polar regions. Some species are symbionts with fungi to become the fixing phycobiont in cyanolichens. They are also symbionts for plants such as bryophytes, cycads and angiosperms. Nostoc rivulare has been associated with toxic blooms. (B15)

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Morphology and Staining

Shape Filamentous organisms - trichomes (chains of connected cells) are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. The individual cells are cylindrical, spherical or ovoid (barrel-shaped) and are not shorter than broad. "[Some colonies form] flattened disks or large sheets, or may be soft and amorphous. Colonies range from microscopic to over 20cm in diameter". (B76) (B79)
Heterocysts This genera are considered members of the order Nostocales which divide exclusively by binary fission in one plane only, and have the possibility of producing heterocysts (larger and more spherical than normal cells, they are non-photosynthetic cells that fix nitrogen). (B76) (B79)

"Nostoc heterocysts are intercalary [occur between the vegetative cells] under most circumstances." (B76)

Staining Gram-negative (B76)
Toxin formation Production of hepatotoxins has been observed in some species of this genera. (B15)
Metabolism "Photosynthesise - convert solar enery and Carbon dioxide to food and other energy types." (B76) (B79)

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Genera "Type Species"

  • Nostoc commune (B76)

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Primary References at the level of this taxa

Genus Author

Suzanne Boardman
B79 Lynn Margulis and Karlene V Schwartz
Five Kingdoms - An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth, 3rd Edition
B76 Noel R Krieg and John G Holt
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology - Volume 3
B15 G.A. Wobeser
Diseases of Wild Waterfowl Second Edition

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