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Virus / Picornaviridae / Type:

Picornaviridae: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus






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  • Epidemiology, Disease Characteristics & Diagnosis
  • Treatment & Control

General and References

Virus Summary

  • The Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is classified within the family Picornaviridae.
  • It is a small RNA virus which is very infectious, multiplying in and causing damage to cells throughout the body of susceptible animals, and which can survive in the environment for some time.
  • It causes particular damage to the epithelial cells of cloven-hoofed mammals: to the skin around the mouth and feet, and the mucous membrane lining the mouth and gut system (and may also damage heart muscle cells particularly in young animals, the milk-secreting cells of the udder and hormone-producing cells).
  • There are seven different serotypes (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia1), each of which can produce Foot-and-Mouth disease. Once an animal has had FMD caused by one serotype, it is still susceptible to attacks by the other serotypes and major different strains within the same serotype. Likewise, each serotype or major strain must be vaccinated against separately.

In most countries the government MUST BE NOTIFIED if Foot-and-Mouth Disease occurs or is suspected.
This is a usually a statutory requirement and is enforced through National legislation.

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

(Classification of virus types is an evolving discipline. The information in Wildpro has been carefully referenced to the source material, as far as possible. Readers requiring further clarification should consult the source materials and more recent publications. Classification information in Wildpro will be altered when clear and scientifically endorsed new information regarding taxonomic divisions becomes available to us.)

  • FMDV
  • Foot and Mouth Disease Virus
  • FMD Virus
  • A virus of the genus Aphthovirus, in the family Picornaviridae.

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Associated Diseases

 FMD Virus is the cause (disease agent) of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, an acute, highly contagious viral disease, mainly (but not exclusively) of cloven-hoofed mammals (cattle, sheep, goats, deer, pigs, camels), which is characterised by the formation of lesions (initially vesicles, later erosions) on the feet and mouth (leading to lameness, salivation and unwillingness to eat), high fever, and sometimes a fatal myocarditis (particularly in juveniles).
Linked Diseases

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

More detailed information available at family level (Picornaviridae)

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All References

Species Author

  • Debra Bourne


B22.35.w7, B47, B58, B73, B207, B209, B210.89.w89, B211, B213.w1, B214.3.9.w1, B214.3.17.w7, B214.3.11.w4, B214.3.13.w5, B214.3.18.w8, B214.3.19.w9, B214.3.22.w10, B216, B217.38.w38, B218, B219, B495.3.w3

P5.40S.w2, P21.78.w1, P22.2000App18.w1

V.w5, V.w6, V.w23,

W18.Apl01.sib1, W32.Apl01.sib1, W31.Apl01.sib3, W32.Apl01.sib24, W34.30May01.sib1, W46.Jun01.sib1

D34, J3.82.w3, D36.Para.20, D36.Para21, D36.Para34, D36.Para37, ,D36.Para38, D36.Para44, D36.Para39, D36.Para41, D36.Para92, D36.Para94, D36.Appendix II, D36.MapVI, D37.Para128, D37.Para132,D37.Para216, D37.MapV,

J3.75.w3, J3.77.w3, J3.83.w1, J3.83.w2, J3.84.w1, J3.89.w1, J3.96.w3, J3.99.w2, J3.102.w4, J3.102.w5, J3.104.w2, J3.108.w3, J3.110.w4, J3.110.w5, J3.111.w3, J3.113.w1, J3.131.w1, J3.134.w1, J3.141.w2, J3.148.w3, J3.148.w5, J12.60.w1, J12.74.w1, J16.22.w1, J18.41.w1, J18.49.w1, J19.45.w1, J19.66.w2, J19.68.w3, J19.68.w2, J19.73.w1, J19.74.w1, J19.111.w1, J19.114.w1, J19.124.w1, J19.124.w2, J21.13.w1, J21.16.w1, J21.23.w1, J21.40.w1, J21.41.w1, J21.43.w1, J21.46.w1, J21.69.w1, J27.62.w2, J35.125.w1, J35.149.w1, J35.158.w1, J39.95.w1, J42.50.w1, J42.75.w1, J42.77.w1, J42.79.w1, J42.81.w1, J42.82.w1, J42.84.w1, J42.84.w2, J42.85.w2, J42.89.w1, J42.91.w1, J42.118.w1, J62.53.w1, J62.53.w2, J63.14.w1, J64.7.w1, J64.7.w2, J64.7.w3, J64.10.w1, J64.11.w2, J64.15.w1, J65.11.w1, J65.12.w1,J64.15.w3, J64.16.w1, J67.32.w1, J68.B302.w1, J69.20S2.w1, J69.20S2.w2, J70.17.w2, J71.57.w1, J71.142.w1, J71.143.w1, J71.144.w1, J71.145.w1, J72.41.w1, J74.46.w1, J75.20.w1, J76.47.w1, J77.14.w1, J78.3.w1

Associated Guidelines Linked in Wildpro

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Structure & Identification

Virus Morphology

Shape Spherical, with icosahedral symmetry (B209, B216). FMD viruses have a relatively smooth surface (B216).
Size Approximate diameter 24 nanometres (B58); 30nm (B209); 27nm (B216)
Envelope Non-enveloped (B209, B216).
No. of particle polypeptides Capsid of 50 poorly defined capsomeres, each made up of four polypeptides (Vp1 to VP4).

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Virus Genome

Nucleic acid type/No. of strands Single-strand RNA, approximately 8400 nucleotides in length. (B209) (B58).
No. of Molecules / Strandedness "The genome consists of a single molecule of linear positive sense, single-stranded RNA, 7.2-8.4kb in size. The genomic RNA is polyadenylated at its 3' end and has a protein, VPg, linked covalently to its 5' end." (B216).
Molecular weight "Virions are constructed from 60 copies each of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3 (Mr approximately 30,000 for each) and VP4 (Mr 7-8000) and a single copy of the genome linked protein, VPg (Mr variable; aphthoviruses encode three VPgs). (B216).
Enzymes --

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Viral Type Diversity (Sub-type/Subspecies)

Recognised Sub-types
  • Several viral types: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asiatic type 1 (Asia 1). (B58)
    • There is discussion as to whether there is one virus with seven serotypes, or seven separate picornaviruses, each of which may produce foot-and-mouth disease.
    • There are several antigenically differing strains or subtypes within each of the seven virus types. (B58)
  • Types O, A and C have occurred in Europe, South America, Central America, Asia, Africa (B58)
  • Types SAT1, SAT2, SAT3 mainly occur in Africa although SAT1 has caused an extensive epizootic in the Middle East (B58).
  • Type Asia 1 has occurred in Asia (B58)
  • Within a virus type, antigenic variation occurs as a continuous process (antigenic drift). Demarcations between subtypes are not clear-cut (B216).
In vitro differences (Laboratory test: differentiation)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequence analysis are now used to identify different strains (B207).
In vivo differences (Affected animal: variation in infectivity and target species) Certain strains of virus may be highly adapted to particular hosts such as pigs or cattle adapted for one species and infect others only with difficulty (J3.141.w2, J27.62.w2, J63.14.w1, B207, D36.Appendix II) or produce severe disease in some species but only mild disease in others. e.g. strain O 1/85, caused severe disease in Gazella gazella - Mountain gazelle but only mild symptoms in cattle, sheep and goats challenged with the virus (J64.7.w1).

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Virus Detection and Identification

Editorial Comment

"Rapid diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease is of paramount importance, especially in countries that are usually free of infection, so that quarantine and eradication programs can be implemented as quickly as possible." (B216).

Usually a definitive diagnosis of FMD is based on the presence of FMD virus or antigen. Tests identify whether or not virus is present, and the specific serotype. In the absence of tissue samples, diagnosis can be made based on the demonstration of specific antibodies in serum. (J64.11.w2).

Detection of virus (virus isolation or detection of virus antigen) is generally carried out on epithelium from intact vesicles (blisters), fluid from vesicles, or the tags of epithelium from the edges of ruptured vesicles (erosions). Blood may also be tested for the presence of virus (viraemia); sometimes other tissues/secretions are used. Cells and mucus from the pharynx, sampled using a probang cup, may be used for the detection of virus in subclinically infected animals and carriers (J3.77.w3, J42.118.w1, W18.Apl01.sib1).

  • Virus typing by complement fixation (CF) test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be carried out directly on material expected to contain large amounts of virus, such as fluid or epithelium from intact or recently ruptured vesicles. Samples which are negative must then be tested by growth in cell culture followed by virus typing of the cell culture supernatant. Samples which are less likely to contain large amounts of virus are tested by growing the virus from the sample in cell culture, followed by virus typing. (B58, B209, B210.89.w89, B216, B219).
  • Tests such as the complement fixation test or ELISA, performed on fresh material from vesicles (blisters) or vesicular fluids, allow a definitive diagnosis within a few hours, on virus-positive samples.
(J64.15.w3, B58, B209, B210.89.w89, B211).
  • Direct serotyping using ELISA is able to produce a positive result within three hours from the time the test is set up. (J64.15.w3). Note: This is dependent on the presence of sufficient antigen in the sample. If a test result is negative at this stage a cell culture is required which will either increase (amplify) antigen to a level where it can be detected or confirm the negative result.
  • Repeated sampling of oesophageal/pharyngeal fluid and detection of virus in this fluid is required for the detection of carrier animals as an animal negative on one occasion may be positive at a later date. The sensitivity of testing is probably 50%; this can be improved by repeated sampling.(J3.77.w3, J42.118.w1).
  • Recently, work has been carried out developing kits which, subject to satisfactory validation, could be used for rapid pen-side testing for FMD virus (J71.144.w1, P22.2000App18.w1).

Detection of antibody is carried out on serum samples.

  • Traditional tests detect antibody to structural proteins of the FMD virus and the serum must be tested for each of the seven different types of virus. These tests can be used to determine which types of virus are/have been present in an area.
  • More recently, tests have been developed which detect non-structural proteins. These tests detect infection with any type of FMD virus and do not distinguish between virus types.
  • The oldest of the tests for non-structural antibodies detect antibodies to "virus infection associated antigen" (D3). However, animals which have been vaccinated repeatedly with inactivated vaccines may be positive with this test (for example due to contamination of some impure vaccines with this non-structural protein and because the virus particle contains some of this protein in its capsid (V.w23)).
  • In the last several years, tests (mainly ELISAs) have been developed to detect various non-structural protein antigens. These tests are sensitive, specific and suitable for screening large numbers of serum samples. They are able to distinguish between animals which have been infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (had virus replicating in them) and those which have not, whether or not the animals have been vaccinated (J69.20S2.w1, J69.20S2.w2, J70.17.w2, J71.142.w1, J71.143.w1, J71.145.w1).
    • The OIE has now accepted the use of tests for non-structural proteins. (W31.Sept07.w1) See: Terrestrial Animal Health Code Sixteenth Edition: Chapter 2.2.10 Foot and Mouth Disease and Appendix 3.8.7 Surveillance (Office International des Epizooties) (full text provided)
Literature Reports
Types of Techniques recorded as useful for viral identification
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Complement Fixation Techniques
  • ELISA Techniques
  • PCR Techniques
  • Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) Techniques
  • Immunofluorescence Techniques

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Associated Host Species and Hazard / Risk

Definitive Host Species (Agent undergoes final stage of replication for transmission)

Editorial Summary for Degree of Infectivity for other Species

Foot-and-Mouth Disease is primarily a disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals (Artiodactyla); that is cattle, antelope, sheep, goats, deer, pigs and camels. However, a wide range of mammal species have been reported to have been infected with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus and reports of clinical disease have been recorded for at least 12 orders of animals.

The major host species for FMD virus are widely recognised to be domestic cattle (Bos taurus - Domestic cattle), sheep (Ovis aries - Domestic sheep), goats (Capra hircus - Domestic goat) and pigs (Sus domesticus - Domestic pig), whilst Syncerus caffer - African buffalo is considered to be the definitive host for FMDV serotypes SAT1, SAT2, SAT3.

Natural infection with FMD virus can cause serious disease in other species, including elephants (Elephantidae) and hedgehogs. A wide variety of species, including many rodents, have been experimentally infected by injection, but considerably fewer species have been infected by natural contact (either experimentally or in the field / wild).

Horses are accepted to be totally resistant to Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus and in general carnivores are resistant.


Animals have been recorded to "carry" the FMD virus without appearing clinically ill under the following conditions:

  • after recovery from clinical disease.
  • after undetected subclinical disease.
  • on exposure of vaccinated animals to virus.

In all these situations, only a percentage of animals become carriers. The duration of the carrier state varies with species and has been recorded in Syncerus caffer - African buffalo for at least five years, cattle for up to 3 years, sheep and goats for up to 9 months. Some deer and antelope have been recorded to carry the virus for several months. Pigs have never been reported to become carriers.

Reports of carrier animals infecting susceptible in contact animals are EXTREMELY RARE.

Different strains of FMD have different capacities to establish persistent infection and the proportion of animals which become carriers following exposure to virus varies depending on the severity of the challenge, but does not appear to be influenced by the age or sex of the host.

The establishment of carriers is reduced in endemic areas if routine vaccination is used; this is probably related to reduced clinical cases resulting in less virus being present in the environment.

N.B. Vaccination does not make animals into FMD virus carriers: "Properly inactivated [killed] vaccine, when injected into animals, does not of itself give rise to the carrier state." (P5.40S.w2)

(B22.35.w7, B47, B58, B207, B209, B213.w1, B214.3.9.w1, B214.3.17.w7, B214.3.11.w4, B214.3.13.w5, B214.3.18.w8, B214.3.19.w9, B214.3.22.w10, B216, B217.38.w38, B218, D36.Para44, D36.Appendix II, J3.75.w3, J3.84.w1, J3.99.w2, J3.102.w4, J3.104.w2, J3.113.w1, J3.131.w1, J12.60.w1, J12.74.w1, J19.45.w1, J19.66.w1, J19.73.w1, J19.111.w1, J19.114.w1, J19.124.w1, J21.16.w1, J35.149.w1, J35.158.w1, J42.50.w1, J42.77.w1, J42.79.w1, J42.81.w1, J42.82.w1, J42.84.w1, J42.84.w2, J42.85.w2, J42.89.w1, J42.118.w1, J62.53.w2, J65.12.w1, J64.7.w3, J64.7.w2, J64.15.w1, J65.11.w1, J65.12.w1, J71.57.w1, J72.41.w1, J74.46.w1, J75.20.w1, J76.47.w1, J77.14.w1, J78.3.w1, P5.40S.w2, P21.78.w1)

Literature Reports of Species Infected
ORDERS recorded overall as containing Definitive Host Species (incl. Experimental, captive and free-ranging) (Not including infection unconfirmed by Laboratory diagnosis)

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Intermediate Host and Vector Species (Agent uses an intermediate species for development and/or specific indirect transmission)

Editorial Summary for Degree of Infectivity for other Species Not applicable for FMDV.
Literature Reports of Species Infected
Species ORDERS Reported (Not including infection unconfirmed by Laboratory diagnosis)
  • Not applicable

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Paratenic Species (Agent can survive on or in the species, but there is no replication or further development)

Editorial Summary for Degree of Infectivity for other Species In principle, virus may be transported in or on any species, including those which are and those which are not susceptible to infection. This includes wild birds, wild rodents, insects (flies and ticks) and earthworms.

(J3.102.w5, D36.Para34, D36.Para38, J18.41.w, J63.14.w1)

Literature Reports of Species Infected
Species ORDERS Reported (Not including infection unconfirmed by Laboratory diagnosis)
  • Paratenic Hosts have not been key-worded for FMD

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Degree of Hazard (Risk to Humans / other Species)

  • The risk to humans from FMDV is very slight; confirmed cases of FMD in humans are rare and the disease in humans is subclinical or mild and of short duration (B47, B216).
  • FMDV is highly contagious, and may infect a wide variety of species, particularly ruminants and pigs but also species as diverse as elephants and hedgehogs. The disease caused by the virus may be subclinical, mild, severe or, particularly in juveniles, fatal (B58, B210.89.w89, D33).
Office International des Epizooties Category
Biological Containment Level - USA
  • Biosafety Level 2 (B216).

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Associated Legislation / Codes of Conduct

Pre-existing legislation for implementation of Control Measures in a Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak exists in many countries worldwide. In addition, there are often Laws and/or Directives relating to National Contingency Planning and also to Import and Export Restrictions, with specific reference to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease is notifiable in many countries including the United Kingdom and is listed on Annex 1 of the European Union Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general Community measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease

The documents listed below are a small, non-representative list, but are of particularly relevance to the 2007 FMD Outbreak in the United Kingdom.

Codes of Conduct
National / State Legislation
European Union Legislation
International Law
  • --

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Virus Life Cycle, Transmission, Physical/Chemical Factors and Biogeographical - Climatic Range

Life Cycle and Transmission (General cycle of replication and mechanisms of moving between hosts and habitats)

Editorial Comment For a disease to remain in a population, each infected animal must infect at least one other animal. If it infects less than this, the number of infected animals will decrease and the disease will die out. If it infects more than this, the number of infected animals will increase. In order for Foot-and-Mouth Disease to be transmitted from one animal to another the virus which causes the disease must a) be produced by, and move out of, an infected animal; b) move from the infected animal to another animal; c) enter a susceptible animal.

SOURCE: THE VIRUS MUST FIRST MOVE OUT OF AN INFECTED ANIMAL. The main ways in which the virus moves out of an infected live animal are in air-borne droplets from the lungs and the fluid-filled vesicles; in the saliva, urine, faeces, semen and milk; secretions from the eyes, nose, prepuce and vagina; and through direct contact with skin or pieces of infected skin that may drop off the animal. Virus may be produced by an infected animal before the damage to the skin and mucous membranes is evident. The virus may also multiply in and thereby be spread by some animals which do not have clinical signs (subclinically affected animals) and may multiply in and possibly be spread from carrier animals.

It may also be transmitted in milk and infected carcasses on meat, hides, and bones which are frequently transported locally, regionally and between continents. 

Occasionally, outbreaks are associated with escapes of virus from a laboratory.

SPREAD: THE VIRUS IS SPREAD COMMONLY BY THE MOVEMENT OF INFECTED ANIMALS. THE VIRUS MAY ALSO MOVE INDEPENDENTLY WHILST OUTSIDE THE ANIMAL. Humans, ticks, birds, rodents, dogs and cats may carry and spread the virus if they contact any of the above body substances, and, in the case of humans and probably other vertebrates, for a short time after they have breathed in the infected airborne droplets (in humans up to 28 hours. The wind may move the air-borne droplets containing the virus up to 250 km over water and shorter distances over land.

INFECTION: THE VIRUS MUST THEN RE-ENTER A SUSCEPTIBLE ANIMAL in which it can multiply. This can be through inhalation (the lungs), ingestion (the gut system), sexual transmission, conjunctival membranes (eye), inoculation (injection) and damaged skin.

(B47, B58, B73, B207, B210, B213.w1, B216, B217.38.w38, B396, B494.7.w7 - full text provided, B495.3.w3 - full text provided, D34, J3.82.w3, D36.Para.20, D36.Para34, D36.Para37-38, D36.Para39, D36.Para41, D36.Para92, D36.Para94, D36.Appendix II, D36.MapVI, D37.Para128, D37.Para216, D37.MapV, J3.83.w2, J3.89.w1, J3.96.w3, J3.102.w5, J3.108.w3, J3.110.w4, J3.110.w5, J3.111.w3, J3.131.w1, J3.134.w1, J3.148.w3, J3.148.w5, J16.22.w1, J18.41.w1, J18.49.w1, J19.66.w2, J19.68.w3, J19.68.w2, J19.73.w1, J19.74.w1, J19.114.w1, J21.13.w1, J21.16.w1, J21.23.w1, J21.40.w1, J21.41.w1, J21.43.w1, J21.46.w1, J21.69.w1, J35.149.w1, J42.75.w1, J42.84.w1, J42.85.w2, J42.91.w1, J42.118.w1, J62.53.w1, J63.14.w1, J64.7.w2, J64.15.w1, J64.16.w1, J64.21.w23, J64.21.w28, J67.32.w1, J68.B302.w1, J72.41.w1, J75.20.w1, J223.77.w4, J249.91.w2, P5.40S.w2, V.w5, V.w23, W46.Jun01.sib1)

Literature Reports
Editorial Overviews Available

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Chemical Toxicities / Disinfectants

Editorial Comment Foot-and-mouth disease virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants. Acids such as citric acid (0.2% solution), alkalis such as washing soda (sodium carbonate, 4% solution) and acid-containing iodophore disinfectants are effective. Formaldehyde may also be used.

As the virus is sensitive to extremes of pH, both acids (e.g. citric acid) and bases (e.g. caustic soda or sodium hydroxide) may be effective at destroying virus. Their action is enhanced if physical cleaning and detergents are used in combination with the disinfectant as organic material must be penetrated. Higher temperatures may also enhance the cleaning effect.

It is important not to mix acid and alkali disinfectants as their activity against the virus depends on their pH and they will neutralise one another if mixed.

(B47, B58, B207, B209, B217.38.w38, D37.Para132, J39.95.w1, J63.14.w1, J72.41.w1, V.w6, W18.Apl01.sib1, W32.Apl01.sib1, W32.Apl01.sib24, W34.30May01.sib1)

Literature Reports

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Physical Susceptibility (Inactivation)

Editorial Comment FMD virus tends to be insensitive to cold and sensitive to heat. It is susceptible to pH changes away from neutral. At relative humidities over 60%, virus may survive for at least several hours in airborne droplets.

(B47, B58, B207, B209, B216, B396, B495.3.w3 - full text provided, J3.83.w1, J19.74.w1, J19.124.w2, J35.125.w1, J39.95.w1, J63.14.w1, J64.10.w1, J72.41.w1, W18.Apl01.sib1)

Literature Reports

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Environments - External Habitats (Biogeographical / Climate Type)

Editorial Overview FMD Virus has been recorded in a wide variety of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical climates. The virus may rapidly multiply and spread (causing a disease outbreak) wherever susceptible animals in close contact are exposed to the virus. Cloven-hoofed mammals (the main host species) exist in virtually all biomes and so occasional outbreaks caused by introduction of the virus through import may occur in almost any habitat type.

However, for a virus to become freely circulating it must be able to exist in the environment, either inside or outside the host, for long enough to infect a susceptible host. Many viruses survive for only a short time outside their hosts, however FMD virus is one which may show a longer survival in the external environment.

FMD Virus is killed by prolonged exposure to sunlight (due to drying and heating) and rapidly by acids and strong alkalis. However it has been reported to remain infective for over 2.5 years in carrier cattle, 1 year in infected premises and in hides, 2 months in carrier deer, 15 weeks on wood, hay and straw, 10-12 weeks on infected feed or clothing, 8 weeks in fragments of infected skin in winter, and 4 weeks on hair and soil particles.

ANY HABITAT TYPE WITH CONDITIONS THAT ALLOW CONTACT OF SUSCEPTIBLE SPECIES WITH ANY OF THE ABOVE (infected or carrier animals, animal products, other objects containing/carrying virus) WITHIN the indicated TIME SCALE WILL ALLOW THE VIRUS TO CONTINUE TO CIRCULATE. The disease would thus become endemic.

(B207, B47, B58, D36.Para21, J19.124.w2, J35.149.w1, J19.114.w1, J42.84.w2, J63.14.w1, J64.10.w1, J72.41.w1)

Literature Reports
Habitat Biomes where virus appears to be able replicate and transfer between species sufficiently well to become permanently established in Biome (Become Endemic)
  • Probably All

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Distribution and Geographical Occurrence

Editorial Overview The Office International des Epizooties (OIE), based in France, collects and monitors reports of Foot and Mouth Disease worldwide. The World Reference Laboratory, Animal Health Institute, Pirbright, UK confirms, identifies and types the virus serotypes involved. Specific details can be obtained directly through the OIE and their Website: see reference W31 - Office International des Epizooties -

In general:

  • FMD has historically occurred across most of the world.
  • The disease has never been reported from a few isolated countries such as New Zealand and Iceland.
  • The last reported outbreak in Australia was in 1872, in USA 1929, Canada 1951-52, Mexico 1946-1954.
  • Japan has been free of FMD for most of the 20th century, but an outbreak occurred in 2000.
  • Much of Europe has been "free" of FMD for most of the 1990s, although there have been a number of outbreaks e.g. in Greece and the Balkans.
  • Areas where one or more serotypes of FMD are considered to be endemic include most of Asia, Africa, Middle East, South America. In these regions, any country which is not listed as FMD free in the OIE list should be presumed to have the disease present.
  • In the last several years, type O virus has caused foot-and-mouth disease epidemics in a number of countries throughout the world which have previously been designated by the OIE "FMD Free" (with or without vaccination), including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil.

(B216, B58, B207, B211, B216, J42.118.w1, W31.Apl01.sib3, W32.Apl01.sib1)

A list of which countries are considered to be free of FMD is maintained by the OIE. The OIE website should be consulted for an up-to-date listing.

Literature Reports
General Regions with literature reports of virus in last three years (not including experimental)

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