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Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Range
Ref 2.
Mean
Ref 2.
SD+
Total Protein g/l 44-62 6.1 1.0
Albumin g/l 21-31 3.6 0.5
Globulin g/l 16-32 2.5 0.7
Calcium mg/dl . 12.4 0.0
mmol/l 1.45-2.55 . .
Magnesium mg/dl   2.4 0.0
Phosphorus mg/dl . 4.5 0.0
mmol/l 1.07-2.17 . .
Sodium mEq/dl . . .
mmol/l 121-141 . .
Potassium mEq/dl . . .
mmol/l 3.0-6.0 . .
Chloride mEq/dl . . .
  mmol/l 90-106 . .
Creatinine mg/dl . 0.3 0.1
μmol/l 0-71 . .
Urea nitrogen mg/dl . 21 6
mmol/l 2.9-12.7 . .
Cholesterol mg/dl . . .
mmol/l 2.7-3.9 . .
Glucose mg/dl . 108 8
mmol/l 1.3-5.9    
Iron μg/dl   . .
AST iu/l 1.0-79.0 65 44
ALT iu/l 22-70 69 34
LDH iu/l <490 . .
CPK (CK) iu/l <360 . .
Amylase SU . . .
iu/l <1500 . .
Alkaline phosphatase iu/l 20-80 51 0
GGT iu/l   . .
Lipase iu/l   . .
Total bilirubin mg/dl . 0.1 0
μmol/l <7 . .
Direct bilirubin mg/dl . . .
Indirect bilirubin mg/dl . . .
Triglycerides mg/dl . . .
Bicarbonate mmol/l . . .
Carbon dioxide mmol/l . . .
Uric acid mg/dl . . .

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source B284.6.w6
Ref Title BSAVA Manual of Wildlife Casualties - Chapter 6: Hedgehogs
Ref Author(s) Bexton, S. & Robinson, I.
Animal Details Information not provided in original reference.
Laboratory Techniques Information not published in original reference, although all the data apparently originates from a single laboratory.
Comments This normal reference range was provided courtesy of MedLab, Tarporley, Cheshire.

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Reference 2.

Wildpro Data Source B336.35.w35
Ref Title Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Fifth Edition: Insectivora (Hedgehogs, Tenrecs, Shrews, Moles) and Dermoptera (Flying Lemurs)
Ref Author(s) Barbiers, R.
Animal Details Information was not provided in original reference with regard to number of animals, age, sex or reproductive status.
Laboratory Techniques Information not published in original reference with regard to consistency of laboratory techniques.
Comments No further information available. Reference contains normal ranges for hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris, Atelerix frontalis, Erinaceus europaeus), Tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), Old world moles (Talpa spp.) and Japanese shrew-moles (Urotrichus spp.).

*These units and figures have been faithfully reproduced from the original publications.

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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