< > Haem1 - Normal Haematology Values for Erinaceus europaeus - West European hedgehog

Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Mean
Ref 1.
SD+
Ref 1.
Range
Ref 2.
Mean
Ref 2.
SD+
Ref 2.
Range
Ref 3.
Mean
Ref 3.
SD+
Ref 3.
Range
Ref 4.
Range
Ref 5.
Mean
Ref 5.
SD+
Haemoglobin g/litre 125 12.8 96-166 124 12.8 104-166 126 13.2 96-157 9.9-16.3 . .
g/dl . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 2.4
RBC
(Erythrocyte)
count
x1012/l 8.1 0.7 6.2-10.0 8.13 0.67 7.0-10.0 8.06 0.75 6.2-9.1 . . .
x106/mm3 . . . . . . . . . 4.49-6.41 . .
x106/μl . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 1.4
PCV l/l 0.33 0.038 0.25-0.46 0.33 0.038 0.26-0.46 0.33 0.038 0.25-0.41 0.30-0.45 . .
% . . . . . . . . . . 35.1 6.8
MCV fl 40.6 2.46 35.4-46.4 39.9 2.35 35.4-46.4 41.5 2.32 36.9-45.8 49.1-53.2 41.0 5.1
MCH pg 15.4 0.8 13.7-17.5 15.3 0.72 14.0-17.4 15.6 0.88 13.7-17.5 16.8-18.2 . .
mg/dl . . . . . . . . . . 12.9 2.4
MCHC g/dl 38.1 1.63 34.8-42.2 38.4 1.73 34.8-42.2 37.7 1.41 34.9-40.6 33.3-35.2 31.4 4.3
Tot. WBC
(Leukocytes)
x109/l 7.4 1.96 1.7-11.4 7.19 1.97 1.7-11.4 7.69 1.95 3.2-10.1 5.5-17.1 9.9 2.5
Neutrophils x109/l 2.97 1.4 0.42-6.38 3.15 1.39 0.63-6.38 2.72 1.38 0.42-5.05 .1.43-11.7* . .
% . . . . . . . . .   . .
x103/μl . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 1.9
Lymphocytes x109/l 3.75 1.28 0.85-7.77 3.43 1.1 0.85-5.72 4.2 1.4 2.62-7.77 2.3-5.1*. . .
% . . . . . . . . .   . .
x103/μl . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 0.9
Monocytes x109/l 0.16 0.11 0.00-0.48 0.18 0.12 0.00-0.48 0.14 0.09 0.00-0.38 .0.06-0.58* . .
% . . . . . . . . .   . .
x103/μl . . . . . . . . . . 0.3 0.1
Eosinophils x109/l 0.44 0.27 0.00-1.35 0.35 0.20 0.00-1.01 0.56 0.34 0.09-1.35 .0.47-1.87*
. .
% . . . . . . . . .   . .
x103/μl . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 0.4
Basophils x109/l 0.08 0.06 0.00-0.28 0.08 0.06 0.00-0.28 0.08 0.06 0.00-0.22 0.07-0.69*.
. .
% . . . . . . . . .   0.4 0.3
Platelets x109/l 134 60.5 29-338 133 67.8 29-338 135 48.3 50-238 230-430 . .
x103/μl . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plasma protein g/dl . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plasma fibrinogen g/dl . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source J3.151.w2
Ref Title Normal haematological values of European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from an English rehabilitation centre
Ref Author(s) Lewis, J.C.M., Frost, L.M., Norcott, M.R.
Animal Details 50 animals over six months of age (29 males, 21 females).
Laboratory Techniques
  • The blood sample was refrigerated and analysed within 24 hours of collection on a Hemalyser 2.

  • Differential counts were determined manually on smears stained with May grunwald/giemsa stains.

Comments The animals in the survey had been over-wintered in a rescue centre and selected as possible candidates for release into the wild. All animals had been previously treated for lungworms and ectoparasites. Blood samples were taken from the medial saphenous vein under general anaesthesia (isoflurane and oxygen) - approximately 0.5ml of blood into EDTA.

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Reference 2.

Wildpro Data Source J3.151.w2
Ref Title Normal haematological values of European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from an English rehabilitation centre
Ref Author(s) Lewis, J.C.M., Frost, L.M., Norcott, M.R.
Animal Details 29 males over six months of age (sub-set of Reference 1. above)
Laboratory Techniques
  • The blood sample was refrigerated and analysed within 24 hours of collection on a Hemalyser 2.

  • Differential counts were determined manually on smears stained with May grunwald/giemsa stains.

Comments The animals in the survey had been over-wintered in a rescue centre and selected as possible candidates for release into the wild. All animals had been previously treated for lungworms and ectoparasites. Blood samples were taken from the medial saphenous vein under general anaesthesia (isoflurane and oxygen) - approximately 0.5ml of blood into EDTA.

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Reference 3.

Wildpro Data Source J3.151.w2
Ref Title Normal haematological values of European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from an English rehabilitation centre
Ref Author(s) Lewis, J.C.M., Frost, L.M., Norcott, M.R.
Animal Details 21 females over six months of age (sub-set of Reference 1. above)
Laboratory Techniques
  • The blood sample was refrigerated and analysed within 24 hours of collection on a Hemalyser 2.

  • Differential counts were determined manually on smears stained with May grunwald/giemsa stains.

Comments The animals in the survey had been over-wintered in a rescue centre and selected as possible candidates for release into the wild. All animals had been previously treated for lungworms and ectoparasites. Blood samples were taken from the medial saphenous vein under general anaesthesia (isoflurane and oxygen) - approximately 0.5ml of blood into EDTA.

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Reference 4.

Wildpro Data Source B284.6.w6
Ref Title BSAVA Manual of Wildlife Casualties - Chapter 6: Hedgehogs
Ref Author(s) Bexton, S. & Robinson, I.
Animal Details Information not provided in original reference.
Laboratory Techniques Information not published in original reference, although all the data apparently originates from a single laboratory.
Comments This normal reference range was provided courtesy of MedLab, Tarporley, Cheshire.

*Note: In the original publication these were erroneously listed as "%" rather than the correct units of x109 /l. 

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Reference 5.

Wildpro Data Source B336.35.w35
Ref Title Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Fifth Edition: Insectivora (Hedgehogs, Tenrecs, Shrews, Moles) and Dermoptera (Flying Lemurs)
Ref Author(s) Barbiers, R.
Animal Details Information was not provided in original reference with regard to number of animals, age, sex or reproductive status.
Laboratory Techniques Information not published in original reference with regard to consistency of laboratory techniques.
Comments No further information available. Reference contains normal ranges for hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris, Atelerix frontalis, Erinaceus europaeus), Tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), Old world moles (Talpa spp.) and Japanese shrew-moles (Urotrichus spp.).

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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