Kingdoms / Animalia / Craniata / Aves / Anseriformes / Anatidae / Cairina / Species
< >  Cairina scutulata - White-winged duck (Click photographs/illustrations: full picture & further details)
Click on photograph for full-screen view Click on photograph for full-screen view Click on photograph for full-screen view Click on photograph for full-screen view Click on photograph for full-screen view Click Photo for full-page view Click Photo for full-page view Click Photo for full-page view

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL & REFERENCES

EXTERNAL APPEARANCES

REPRODUCTION

BEHAVIOUR

NATURAL DIET

RANGE & HABITAT

CONSERVATION

Click image to return to Waterfowl Contents FlowchartCONTENTS
(Waterfowl)

Click image for list of Waterfowl Species

Click image for list of Waterfowl Agents
Click image for list of Waterfowl Diseases
Click image for list of Waterfowl Environmental Events / Factors

Return to top of page

General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

White-winged Wood-Duck
White winged wood duck
WWW Duck
Malaienente (German)
Weissflugel-Moschusente (German)
Wei▀flugel-Moschusente (German)
Canard Ó ailes blanches (French)
Pato de alas blancas (Spanish)
Pato de Jungla (Spanish)
Asarcornis scutulata

Names for newly-hatched

Duckling, downy.

Names for non-breeding males or other colour-phases

--

Return to top of page

References

Species Author

Debra Bourne

Major References

B1, B3, B6, B8, B19, B25, B26.

Aviculture references:
B7, B11.33.w1, B29, B30, B44.9.w1, B94, )
D1, D8
V.w3, V.w4, V.w12, V.w14

Other References

W2
Click image for main Reference Section

Return to top of page

TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

  •  

Return to top of page

Aviculture Information

Notes

General information:
  • Perching Ducks and "geese" are generally happier maintained fully-flighted if possible, for example in an aviary for the smaller species, or under flight netting.
  • While the larger species in this group are hardy, the smaller species may be more delicate and require winter shelter. These species eat a high proportion of vegetable matter and appreciate a grazing area. Most of these species are hole-nesters.
  • Many of these species are sociable outside the breeding season, although Cairina moschata - Muscovy duckCairina scutulata - White-winged duck, Pteronetta hartlaubii - Hartlaub's duck and Plectropterus gambensis - Spur-winged goose can all be aggressive and require separate enclosures.

(B7, B11.33.w1, B94, D1)

Species-specific information:

  • White-winged ducks (white-winged wood-ducks) are usually maintained in large open-topped enclosures, although they have also been kept full-winged in aviaries. They appreciate the presence of some areas of natural vegetation cover such as bamboo in the pen although they can be maintained in quite open pens. Adults may be fed waterfowl maintenance pellets or a mixture of wheat and waterfowl maintenance pellets, changing to breeder pellets for the spring and summer (breeding season). Given the chance they will supplement this diet with items such as fish and frogs, and a duck has been observed to eat a mallard duckling.
  • They may be kept as a single pair in their own enclosure, but have also been kept as a trio (male and two females) and in larger groups (as many as seven or eight birds in a large enclosure), although an excess of males would not be recommended (V.w14). Breeding pairs may be aggressive to other white-winged ducks but tolerant of other duck species (e.g. dabbling ducks) and even small geese (V.w12); however they may sometimes be aggressive to other ducks in the breeding season (V.w15).
  • These endangered ducks were considered difficult to breed, but are now bred regularly in a number of collections. Raised nest boxes, e.g. four feet (1.2 metres) off the ground, or a treestump with a branch acting as a ladder to an entrance hole only 9-12 inches (23-30cm) off the ground are used (V.w14), and even a horizontally-positioned milk churn (V.w15). Eggs are laid mainly end of April to June.
  • Although eggs have sometimes been parent incubated, and removed at chipping/hatching (V.w15), ducklings have then been hand-reared as dabbling ducks, initially in brooder boxes off water and moving to outside pens with access to water by about 3-4 weeks old (V.w14), or with access to water delayed until they are feathered (V.w15). Initial starter crumbs may be supplemented by a softbill-type insectivorous food or mealworms, with older ducklings being fed grower pellets or seaduck diet and later grower diet mixed with wheat.
  • N.B. these ducks are highly susceptible to Avian Tuberculosis (V.w3, V.w4,); the presence of planted areas for hiding should be balanced against the increased risk of the survival of the causative bacterium (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex) in shady conditions.

(B11.33.w1, B29, B30, B44.9.w1, V.w3, V.w4, V.w12, V.w14, V.w15)

Aviornis UK Ringing Scheme recommended average ring size: R 16.0mm (males) or P 14.0mm (females) (wild-type only)(D8).

Management Techniques

--
Click image for main Aviculture Section

Return to top of page

External Appearance (Morphology)

Measurement & Weight

Length 26-32 inches, 66-81cm (B3, B1).
Adult weight General 1.23-2.61kg (B1).
Male 2.95-3.86kg (B3); mean 5.9 lbs., maximum 8.6 lbs. (B8).
Female 1.93-3.05kg (B3); mean 4.1 lbs. (B8)
Newly-hatched weight --
Growth rate --

Return to top of page

Head

Adult Bill Male Yellow-orange to red-orange, with grey-black mottling. Redder and base swollen in breeding season (B3, B8, B25, B26)
Variations (If present) Female Yellow-orange to red-orange, with grey-black mottling; redder in breeding season (B3, B8, B25, B26)
Eyes (Iris) Male Yellow-orange to reddish (B3, B8, B25, B26)
Variations(If present) --
Juvenile Bill Yellow-orange to red-orange, with grey-black mottling (B6, B25).
Eyes (Iris) Yellow-orange to reddish (B3, B25).

Return to top of page

Legs

Adult Male Orange-yellow (B3, B6, B8, B25, B26).
Variations (If present) --
Juvenile Orange-yellow (B3, B6, B8, B25, B26).

Return to top of page

Plumage

Adult Male Head and neck white spotted with black. Upperparts iridescent green-black, underparts dark chestnut-brown. Wing has upperwing coverts white, greater coverts have black tips, secondaries blue-grey, primaries brown-black, tertials black with white inner webs to outer feathers.

(B3, B6, B8, B25, B26)

Variations (If present) Female:- slightly duller, head and neck more heavily black-spotted.

Geographical variation:- head and neck pure white in some areas, and white may extend to breast and sometimes abdomen.
(B3, B6, B25, B26)

Juvenile Duller, browner, head and neck brownish initially. (B3, B6, B25, B26)

Return to top of page

Newly-hatched Characteristics

General: Upperparts brown, with yellow markings on sides and wings; underparts yellow, with dark eyestripe and second stripe below. (B26)
Bill: --
Feet: --

Return to top of page

Reproduction

Reproductive Season

Time of year Rainy season (Assam: April-Sept) (B1, B25)
No. of Clutches --

Return to top of page

Nest placement and structure

In tree hollows, often near swampy ground , but may also use ground nests or old nests of other birds (B1, B8, B25).

Return to top of page

Egg clutches

No. of Eggs Average 11 (B8)
Range 6-13 (B1); 6-15 (B8)
Egg Description Greenish-yellow (B3, B8); size: 62x45mm, weight: 89g (B3)

Return to top of page

Incubation

33-35 days (B1, B8)

Return to top of page

Hatching

Synchronous.

Return to top of page

Fledging

About 14 weeks (B1, B26); 85-100 days (B8).

Return to top of page

Sexual Maturity

Males --
Females --

Return to top of page

Behaviour

Feeding Behaviour

Adults Dabble, sometimes head-dip, may dive occasionally. (B1, B25)
Newly-hatched --

Return to top of page

Parental Behaviour

Nest-building --
Incubation By female (B8).
Newly-hatched Probably by female (B3)
Juveniles

--

Return to top of page

Social Behaviour

Intra-specific Found as pairs or in small, possibly family, groups (B3).
Inter-specific --

Return to top of page

Sexual Behaviour

Form pair-bonds (B3)

Return to top of page

Predation in Wild

--

Return to top of page

Activity Patterns

Feed mainly in shady waters in forests, also on more open swamps.
Circadian Mainly feed at night and perch in trees during the day (B1, B8, B25)

Return to top of page

Natural Diet

Adults

Mixed diet: seeds and green parts aquatic plants, grain, rice, snails, small fish (B1, B26).

Return to top of page

Newly-hatched

--

Return to top of page

Range and Habitat

Distribution and Movement (Migration etc.)

Normal

South-east Asia: eastern India, Burma, Thailand, central-southern Laos and Vietnam, Sumatra and Java; Malaya (possibly vagrant) (B19)

Sedentary, only local movements (B1)

Occasional and Accidental

--

Introduced

--

Return to top of page

Habitat

Lowlands to 1500m. Streams and swamps in dense forests (B8, B19).

Return to top of page

Conservation

Intraspecific variation

--

Return to top of page

Conservation Status

Wild Population -
(Importance)

Endangered, with marked decline during the twentieth century (B1, B8, B44.9.w1)

CITES listing CITES I (B1).
Red-data book listing ENDANGERED (W2).
Threats Habitat loss, local hunting pressure (B1, B44.9.w1).

Return to top of page

Captive Populations

Well established in collections (B8)

Return to top of page

Trade

--

Return to top of page