Animalia / Mandulibulata / Hexapoda / Diptera / Culicidae / Psorophora / Species

Psorophora ciliata - Gallinipper:

INDEX - INFORMATION AVAILABLE

The information in subject headings below is of a general nature on mosquitoes, and Psorophora genus. Species specific information is only added where available/appropriate. For this species information has been added in the sections marked *.

GENERAL & REFERENCES

APPEARANCE

LIFE CYCLE

ENVIRONMENT

STATUS

 
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General and References

Alternative Names (Synonyms)

Alternative scientific names for species

  • Culex ciliata, Culex cyanopennis, Culex molestus, Psorophora boscii, Culex conterrens, Culex perterrens, Psorophora holmbergii, Psorophora lynchi, Psorophora ctites (B505)

Common names for species / adults

Culicine Mosquitoes

Names for other life stages

  • Larval stages may be referred to as instars.
  • Pupae may be called Tumblers.

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General Appearance and Characteristics

Similar Species

--
Sexual Dimorphism --

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Associated Diseases
(Information on this species has been added specifically to support the "West Nile Virus" Wildpro volume.
Information on other diseases for which this species is a vector will be fully researched and added in due course.)

Linked Diseases

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References

Species Author

Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6)

Species Editor

Debra Bourne (V.w5)

References

B24, B46, B73, B502, B503, B504, B505, D70

ORGANISATIONS
(USA Contacts)

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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TAXA Group (where information has been collated for an entire group on a modular basis)

Parent Group

Specific Needs Group referenced in Management Techniques

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Population Management / Control

Notes

--

Management Techniques

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Appearance

Egg

Shape

Size

  • --
Colour
  • --
Egg wall

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Larva

GENERAL CULICIDAE INFORMATION

Shape

  • Large larvae. (B505)

Size

  • --
Colour
  • --
Detailed anatomical comments
  • Culicine larvae
    • do not have float (palmate) hairs on abdominal segments. (D70)
    • the respiratory openings (stigmata) are at the tip of a siphon (air tube) which arises from the dorsal aspect of the eight and ninth abdominal segments and surrounds the stigmata. (B24, D70)
    • in Psorophora larvae, sclerotization of the anal segment is usually complete around the segment. (B503)

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Pupa

Shape

  • --

Size

  • --
Colour
  • --
Detailed anatomical comments
  • --

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Adult

Male characteristics (if different from above)

Shape

  • In Culicine Mosquitoes the resting position of abdomen is pointed towards the resting surface, i.e. the proboscis and abdomen are at an angle, giving a hump-backed appearance. (B24, B503)

Size

  • A very large species. (B505)
  • Psorophora species are relatively large. (B503)

Colour

  • --

Detailed Anatomical Comments

HEAD
  • In Culicines- the palpi of females are very short, while those of the male are usually as long as the proboscis, not clubbed, long, densely haired, and pointed. (B24, B503, D70)

THORAX

  • In Culicine mosquitoes the scutellum (posterior part of the back of the thorax of the insect) is evenly curved. (B24, B503)
  • Psorophora species have a group of bristles (the spiracular bristles) immediately in front of the mesothoracic spiracles. (B503)
  • Psorophora species have long erect scales on the hind tibia. (B503)

ABDOMEN

  • In Culicines the abdomen is covered with scales which often form characteristic markings. (D70)
  • In Psorophora species, the female abdomen is tapered apically, with the eighth segment withdrawn into the seventh. (D70)

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Life Cycle

Egg production and development

  • It is reported that the eggs of this species are laid in small depressions or cracks in the soil and probably do not hatch until after a winter in hibernation. (B505)
  • In some temperate Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species, eggs may over-winter. (B46)
  • Generally all Psorophora species -
    • lay eggs on the ground where they remain until flooded. (D70)
    • eggs from these species can survive for 3 to 5 years if flooding does not occur. (D70)
    • Psorophora eggs hatch as soon as they are flooded and so there can be several generations a year. (D70)
Oviposition (place and type of egg-laying)
  • --
Time to hatching
Number of broods

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Larval Development / Natural Diet / Behaviour

Natural Diet
  • The larvae of this species are predacious, usually feeding on other mosquito larvae with which they may be associated in the aquatic habitats. (B505)
Physiological Requirements Temperature

Food supplies:

Respiration:

Predation in the wild
  • Fish, insects. (D70)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
  • The larvae of this species hangs from the surface of the water in a nearly vertical position. (B505)
  • young stages of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can be transferred to new areas by water flowing intermittently. (B24)
  • too much rain can wash away the larvae and decrease the number of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family), unless pools remain afterwards. (B24)
  • generally, Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) larvae can rest just beneath the surface without effort; certain non-wetting structures suspend the larvae from the water surface film. (D70)
  • Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) larvae move in two ways, by:
    • jerks of the body. (D70)
    • propulsion with the mouth brushes. (D70)
  • Culicine mosquitoes generally move by using mouth brushes to "crawl" over the bottom and move slowly on the surface. (D70)
  • Culicine larvae (and other non-Anopheline species):
    • tend to hang head down with only the tip of the air tube penetrating the surface film, suspended from the water surface by the air tube. (B503, D70).
    • feed below surface of the water. (B24)
    • the air tube is closed by the chitinous valves which open when the larva goes to the surface of the water to breath. (B24)

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Pupal Development

  • The pupal stage is usually complete in 2 days. (B505)
  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae are aquatic and motile, using paddle-like, oval extensions attached terminally to the abdomen to move up and down in the water. (B46, D70).
  • The pupal stage for Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) is usually short: a few hours may be sufficient for certain dry climate species, but more normally ranges from two days in the tropics but can be more than several weeks in temperate regions. (B46, B504, D70)
  • No Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupa is known to overwinter as a pupa. (D70)
  • The Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupa release the adult through a hole / split in back (dorsum) of the pupal cuticle (tegument) as the pupal case floats on the surface of the water. The wings are fully expanded and hardened after about 24 hours and the mosquito is then soon able to fly. (B46, B504, D70)
Natural Diet
Physiological Requirements Respiration
Predation in the wild
  • Probably - fish, insects. (D70)
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
  • All Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae are motile, using paddle-like, oval extensions attached terminally to the abdomen to move up and down in the water. (B46, D70).
  • Most Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae tend to be lighter than water due to an air space between the wing cases on the underside of the cephalothorax. (D70)
  • Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) pupae can move about with considerable speed by vigorous movement of the abdomen, tending to rise directly to the surface when movement stops although they tend to be not quite as active as the larvae. (B24, D70)

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Adult Reproduction / Physiology / Natural Diet / Behaviour

  • --
Natural Diet
  • Most Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species have a generally preferred group of hosts (e.g. birds, mammals, amphibians), but host preference can vary seasonally and often depends on availability. (V.w55)
  • Female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) species of veterinary and medical importance normally feed on blood and many species require a blood feed in order to lay eggs (other species of mosquitoes feed only on plants and these are usually of little interest as disease vectors or pests. B504); the protein is necessary for the maturation of ovaries. This cycle requires two or more days for the female to digest the blood, lay a batch of eggs, then seek another blood meal; the cycle can be repeated many times in a female's life. (B24, B504, D70)
  • When Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) females feed, a tube is formed by the proboscis and the stylets penetrate the skin of the animal and form a small duct through which saliva is injected into the wound; they also act as a canal through which liquid food is ingested. (B46, D70)
  • Adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can be fed on fruit juices and sugar water, and males normally feed on a similar diet in the wild. (B24)
  • Adult male Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) (and occasionally the females) feed on nectar and other plant juices. (B24, B503)
  • female adult Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) can bite through clothing. (B46)
Predation in the wild --
Reproduction and Life-span
Behaviour and Activity Patterns
Detailed Physiological Comments
  • The antennae of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) are believed to to used for hearing and smelling. (D70)
  • Two small knobbed structures (halteres) vibrate rapidly whilst the mosquito is in flight and serve as organs of equilibrium. (D70)

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Environment

General Habitat type (Biogeographical / Climate Type)

  • The larvae occur mainly in unshaded temporary rain-filled pools and may be found in rice fields. (B505)
Typical USA Mosquito Habitats

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Microhabitat (Egg, Larvae, Pupae, Adult)

Egg Temperature

Humidity

Larva

Light:

Pupa
Adult
  • Hibernation / aestivation sites of Culicidae - Mosquitoes (Family) females are usually relatively dark conditions with an even temperature, such as cellars, barns and lofts under thatched roofs. (B24)

Light:

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Geographical Distribution, Migration etc.

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Status

Intra-specific variation (subspeciation)

 

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Conservation / Pest / Legal Status

  • The females are persistent biters and inflict a painful injury. (B505)

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